AOPA Air Safety Foundation - Sport Pilot Checkride Guide

AOPA Air Safety Foundation

Sport Pilot Checkride Guide

This document has been developed to provide pilots and flight instructors with a compact reference guide on practical test standards, eligibility requirements, flight and aeronautical experience requirements, and required endorsements. The selection of the contents was based on input from members of the aviation community who, like you, wanted a single-source document containing information used by pilots and instructors on a regular basis.

We recommend that you take advantage of the vast number of available publications, many of which are offered free by the FAA, to supplement this booklet. Items such as the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) and certain Advisory Circulars (ACs) would complement your personal aviation library.

The Practical Test Standards in this booklet were executed from the Sport Pilot Practical Test Standards for Airplane, FAA-S-8081-29, effective December 2004. Some changes were made to the original text to improve clarity and format. Sport Pilot Practical Test Standards for Gyroplane, Glider, and Flight Instructor were not included. Revision service is not provided for this booklet.

Practical Test Standards may be downloaded from the FAA's Web site. AOPA members can also access the documents online.

SPORT PILOT (ASEL and ASES)

General Information
Practical Test Standards Description
Special Emphasis Areas
Sport Pilot—Practical Test Prerequisites (Initial)
Sport Pilot—Additional Privileges
Single-Seat Aircraft Practical Test
Single-Pilot Resource Management
Applicant's Use of Checklists
Positive Exchange of Flight Controls
Aeronautical Decision Making and Risk Management


Applicant's Practical Test Checklist
Examiner's Practical Test Checklist
AREAS OF OPERATION
  1. PREFLIGHT PREPARATION
  1. PREFLIGHT PROCEDURES
  1. AIRPORT AND SEAPLANE BASE OPERATIONS
  1. Certificates and Documents (ASEL and ASES)
  2. Airworthiness Requirements (ASEL and ASES)
  3. Weather Information (ASEL and ASES)
  4. Cross-Country Flight Planning (ASEL and ASES)
  5. National Airspace System (ASEL and ASES)
  6. Operation of Systems (ASEL and ASES)
  7. Aeromedical Factors (ASEL and ASES)
  8. Water and Seaplane Characteristics (ASES)
  9. Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine Navigation (ASES)
  10. Performance and Limitations (ASEL and ASES)
  11. Principles of Flight (ASEL and ASES)
  1. Preflight Inspection (ASEL and ASES)
  2. Cockpit Management (ASEL and ASES)
  3. Engine Starting (ASEL and ASES)
  4. Taxiing (ASEL)
  5. Taxiing and Sailing (ASES)
  6. Before Takeoff Check (ASEL and ASES)
  1. Radio Communications and ATC Light Signals (ASEL and ASES)
  2. Traffic Patterns (ASEL and ASES)
  3. Airport Runway Markings and Lighting (ASEL and ASES)
  1. TAKEOFFS, LANDINGS, AND GO-AROUNDS
  1. PERFORMANCE MANEUVER
  1. GROUND REFERENCE MANEUVERS
  1. Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb (ASEL and ASES)
  2. Normal and Crosswind Approach and Landing (ASEL and ASES)
  3. Soft-Field Takeoff and Climb (ASEL)
  4. Soft-Field Approach and Landing (ASEL)
  5. Short-Field (Confined Area-ASES) Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb (ASEL and ASES)
  6. Short-Field (Confined Area-ASES) Approach and Landing (ASEL and ASES)
  7. Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb (ASES)
  8. Glassy Water Approach and Landing (ASES)
  9. Rough Water Takeoff and Climb (ASES)
  10. Rough Water Approach and Landing (ASES)
  11. Forward Slip to a Landing (ASEL and ASES)
  12. Go-Around/Rejected Landing (ASEL and ASES)
  1. Steep Turns (ASEL and ASES)
  1. Rectangular Course (ASEL and ASES)
  2. S-Turns (ASEL and ASES)
  3. Turns Around a Point (ASEL and ASES)
  1. NAVIGATION
  1. SLOW FLIGHT AND STALLS
  1. EMERGENCY OPERATIONS
  1. Pilotage and Dead Reckoning (ASEL and ASES)
  2. Diversion (ASEL and ASES)
  3. Lost Procedures (ASEL and ASES)
  1. Maneuvering During Slow Flight (ASEL and ASES)
  2. Power-Off Stalls (ASEL and ASES)
  3. Power-On Stalls (ASEL and ASES)
  4. Spin Awareness (ASEL and ASES)
  1. Emergency Approach and Landing (Simulated) (ASEL and ASES)
  2. Systems and Equipment Malfunctions (ASEL and ASES)
  3. Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear (ASEL and ASES)
  1. POSTFLIGHT PROCEDURES
SPORT PILOT, FAR 61, Subpart J
  1. After Landing, Parking, and Securing (ASEL and ASES)
  2. Anchoring (ASES)
  3. Docking and Mooring (ASES)
  4. Ramping/Beaching (ASES)
  1. Eligibility requirements
  2. Knowledge test requirements
  3. Flight proficiency requirements
  4. Aeronautical experience requirements
  5. Endorsements

General Information

The Flight Standards Service of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed this practical test book as the standard that shall be used by FAA inspectors and designated pilot examiners (DPEs) when conducting sport pilot and flight instructor with a sport pilot rating practical tests or proficiency checks.

The word "examiner" is used throughout the standards to denote either the FAA inspector or an FAA designated pilot examiner who conducts an official practical test or proficiency check. When an examiner conducts a proficiency check they are acting in the capacity of an authorized instructor.

A proficiency check is an evaluation of aeronautical knowledge and flight proficiency in accordance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 61, section 61.321 or 61.419. A proficiency check shall be administered using the appropriate practical test standard (PTS) for the category of aircraft when a pilot or a flight instructor adds new category/class privileges. Upon successful completion of the proficiency check the authorized instructor will endorse the applicant's logbook indicating the added category/class of equipment that the applicant is authorized to operate.

Authorized instructors shall use this PTS when preparing applicants for practical tests or proficiency checks and when conducting proficiency checks. Applicants should be familiar with this book and refer to these standards during their training.

Information considered directive in nature is described in this practical test book in terms, such as "shall" and "must" indicating the actions are mandatory. Guidance information is described in terms, such as "should" and "may" indicating the actions are desirable or permissive, but not mandatory.

The FAA gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by many individuals and organizations throughout the aviation community who contributed their time and talent in assisting with the development of this practical test standard.

This PTS may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9325, or online.

The U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Airman Testing Standards Branch, AFS-630, P.O. BOX 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125 publishes this PTS. Comments regarding this handbook should be sent, in e-mail form, to AFS630comments@faa.gov .

Practical Test Standards Description

AREAS OF OPERATION are phases of the practical test or proficiency check arranged in a logical sequence within each standard. They begin with Preflight Preparation and end with Postflight Procedures. The examiner may conduct the practical test or proficiency check in any sequence that will result in a complete and efficient test. An authorized instructor may conduct a proficiency check in any sequence that will result in a complete and efficient test. However, the ground portion of the practical test or proficiency check shall be accomplished before the flight portion.

TASKs are specific knowledge areas, flight procedures, or maneuvers appropriate to an AREA OF OPERATION. The abbreviation(s) within parentheses immediately following a TASK refer to the appropriate class of aircraft. The meaning of each class abbreviation is as follows:

ASEL Airplane Single-engine Land
ASES Airplane Single-engine Sea

When administering a test using section 1, 2, 3, or 4 of this PTS, the TASKs appropriate to the class aircraft (ASEL and ASES) used for the test shall be included in the plan of action. The absence of a class indicates the TASK is for all classes.

Special Emphasis Areas

Examiners and authorized instructors shall place special emphasis upon areas of aircraft operations considered critical to flight safety. Among these are:

  1. positive aircraft control;
  2. procedures for positive exchange of flight controls;
  3. stall and spin awareness (if appropriate);
  4. collision avoidance;
  5. wake turbulence and low level wind shear avoidance;
  6. runway incursion avoidance;
  7. controlled flight into terrain (CFIT);
  8. aeronautical decision making/risk management;
  9. checklist usage;
  10. spatial disorientation;
  11. temporary flight restrictions (TFR);
  12. special use airspace (SUA);
  13. aviation security; and
  14. other areas deemed appropriate to any phase of the practical test or proficiency check.

Although these areas may not be specifically addressed under each TASK, they are essential to flight safety and will be evaluated during the practical test or proficiency check. In all instances, the applicant's actions will be evaluated in accordance to the standards of the TASKs and the ability to use good judgment with reference to the special emphasis areas listed above.

Sport Pilot—Practical Test Prerequisites (Initial)

An applicant for a Sport Pilot Certificate is required by 14 CFR part 61 to:

  1. be at least 17 years of age (or 16 if applying to operate a glider or balloon);
  2. be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language. If there is a doubt, use AC 60-28, English Language Skill Standards;
  3. have passed the appropriate sport pilot knowledge test since the beginning of the 24th month before the month in which he or she takes a practical test;
  4. have satisfactorily accomplished the required training and obtained the aeronautical experience prescribed;
  5. possess a current and valid U.S. driver's license or a valid Airman Medical Certificate issued under 14 CFR part 67;
  6. have an endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying that the applicant has received and logged training time within 60 days preceding the date of application in preparation for the practical test, and is
  7. prepared for the practical test;
  8. and have an endorsement certifying that the applicant has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which the applicant was deficient on the airman knowledge test.

Sport Pilot—Additional Privileges

If you hold a Sport Pilot Certificate or higher and seek to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft (14 CFR part 61, section 61.321), you must:

  1. receive a logbook endorsement from the authorized instructor who trained you on the applicable aeronautical knowledge areas specified in 14 CFR part 61, section 61.309 and areas of operation specified in section 61.311. The endorsement certifies you have met the aeronautical knowledge and flight proficiency requirements for the additional light-sport aircraft privileges you seek;
  2. successfully complete a proficiency check from an authorized instructor other than the one who trained you on the aeronautical knowledge areas and areas of operation specified in 14 CFR part 61, sections 61.309 and 61.311 for the additional light-sport aircraft privilege you seek;
  3. complete an application for those privileges on a form in a manner acceptable to the FAA and present this application to the authorized instructor who conducted the proficiency check specified in above paragraph;
  4. receive a logbook endorsement from the instructor who conducted the proficiency check specified in 2 above, certifying you are proficient in the applicable areas of operation and aeronautical knowledge areas and that you are authorized for the additional category and class light-sport aircraft privilege.

Single-Seat Aircraft Practical Test

Applicants for a Sport Pilot Certificate may elect to take their test in a single-seat aircraft. The FAA established in 14 CFR part 61, section 61.45(f) specific requirements to allow a practical test for a Sport Pilot Certificate only. This provision does not allow a practical test for a Flight Instructor Certificate or Recreation Pilot Certificate or higher to be conducted in a light-sport aircraft that has a single-pilot station.

With certain limitations, the practical test for a Sport Pilot Certificate may be conducted from the ground by an examiner. The examiner must agree to conduct the practical test in a single-seat aircraft and must ensure that the practical test is conducted in accordance with the sport pilot practical test standards for single-seat aircraft. Knowledge of all TASKs applicable to their category/class of aircraft will be evaluated orally. Single-seat sport pilots shall demonstrate competency in those specific TASKs identified by a NOTE in the AREA OF OPERATION for a single-seat practical test and any other TASKs selected by the examiner. Examiners evaluating single-seat applicants from the ground shall evaluate only those TASK elements that can be accurately assessed from the ground.

The examiner must maintain radio contact with the applicant and be in a position to observe the operation of the aircraft while evaluating the proficiency of the applicant from the ground.

Sport pilots taking the practical test in a single-seat aircraft will have the limitation, "No passenger carriage and flight in a single-pilot station aircraft only" placed on their certificate limiting their operations to a single-seat light-sport aircraft and no passenger carriage will be authorized.

Only an examiner is authorized to remove this limitation. This can be accomplished when the sport pilot takes a practical test in a two-place light-sport aircraft and completes the additional TASKs identified in the practical test standards. This practical test may be conducted in the same or additional category of aircraft.

Upon successful completion of the practical test, the limitation will be removed, and the sport pilot is authorized to act as pilot in command in all categories of light-sport aircraft that he or she has a make and model endorsement within a set of aircraft to operate. The limitation can also be removed if the sport pilot completes the certification requirements in an aircraft with a minimum of two places, for a higher certificate or rating.

Single-Pilot Resource Management

Single-Pilot Resource Management refers to the effective use of ALL available resources: human resources, hardware, and information. It is similar to Crew Resource Management (CRM) procedures that are being emphasized in multi-crewmember operations except that only one crewmember (the pilot) is involved. Human resources "... includes all other groups routinely working with the pilot who are involved in decisions that are required to operate a flight safely. These groups include, but are not limited to: dispatchers, weather briefer, maintenance personnel, and air traffic controllers." Single-pilot Resource Management is not a single TASK; it is a set of skill competencies that must be evident in all TASKs in this practical test standard as applied to single-pilot operation.

Applicant's Use of Checklists

Throughout the practical test or proficiency check, the applicant is evaluated on the use of an appropriate checklist (if specified by the manufacturer.) Proper use is dependent on the specific TASK being evaluated. The situation may be such that the use of the checklist, while accomplishing elements of an Objective, would be either unsafe or impractical. In this case, a review of the checklist after the elements have been accomplished would be appropriate. Division of attention and proper visual scanning should be considered when using a checklist.

Positive Exchange of Flight Controls

During flight training, there must always be a clear understanding between students and flight instructors of who has control of the aircraft. Prior to flight, a briefing should be conducted that includes the procedure for the exchange of flight controls. A positive three-step process in the exchange of flight controls between pilots is a proven procedure and one that is strongly recommended.

When the instructor wishes the student to take control of the aircraft, the instructor will say, "You have the flight controls." The student acknowledges immediately by saying, "I have the flight controls." The flight instructor again says, "You have the flight controls." When control is returned to the instructor, follow the same procedure. A visual check is recommended to verify that the exchange has occurred. There should never be any doubt as to who is flying the aircraft.

Aeronautical Decision Making and Risk Mangement

The examiner or authorized instructor shall evaluate the applicant's ability throughout the practical test or proficiency check to use good aeronautical decision making procedures in order to evaluate risks. The examiner or authorized instructor shall accomplish this requirement by developing scenarios that incorporate as many TASKs as possible to evaluate the applicants risk management in making safe aeronautical decisions. For example, the examiner or authorized instructor may develop a scenario that incorporates weather decisions and performance planning.

  • PERSONAL EQUIPMENT
  • Current Aeronautical Charts
  • Current AIM, Airport Directory, and Appropriate Publications
  • Flight Computer and Plotter
  • Flight Planning Form
  • Flight Logs
  • PERSONAL RECORDS
  • Identification—Photo/Signature ID
  • Pilot Certificate
  • Medical Certificate or Driver's License
  • Completed FAA Form 8710-11, Application for an Airman Certificate and/or Rating-Sport Pilot
  • Computer Test Report
  • Pilot Logbook with Appropriate Instructor's Endorsement
  • FAA Form 8060-5, Notice of Disapproval (if applicable)
  • Examiner's Fee (if applicable)
  • Letter of Discontinuance (if applicable)
  • Approved School Graduation Certificate (if applicable)

Examiner's Practical Test Checklist

  1. PREFLIGHT PREPARATION
    • Certificates and Documents (ASEL and ASES)
    • Airworthiness Requirements (ASEL and ASES)
    • Weather Information (ASEL and ASES)
    • Cross-Country Flight Planning (ASEL and ASES)
    • National Airspace System (ASEL and ASES)
    • Operation of Systems (ASEL and ASES)
    • Aeromedical Factors (ASEL and ASES)
    • Water and Seaplane Characteristics (ASES)
    • Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine Navigation (ASES)
    • Performance and Limitations (ASEL and ASES)
    • Principles of Flight (ASEL and ASES)
  2. PREFLIGHT PROCEDURES
    • Preflight Inspection (ASEL and ASES)
    • Cockpit Management (ASEL and ASES)
    • Engine Starting (ASEL and ASES)
    • Taxiing (ASEL)
    • Taxiing and Sailing (ASES)
    • Before Takeoff Check (ASEL and ASES)
  3. AIRPORT AND SEAPLANE BASE OPERATIONS
    • Radio Communications and ATC Light Signals (ASEL and ASES)
    • Traffic Patterns (ASEL and ASES)
    • Airport Runway Markings and Lighting
  4. TAKEOFFS, LANDINGS, AND GO-AROUNDS
    • Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb (ASEL and ASES)
    • Normal and Crosswind Approach and Landing (ASEL and ASES)
    • Soft-Field Takeoff and Climb (ASEL)
    • Soft-Field Approach and Landing (ASEL)
    • Short-Field (Confined Area-ASES) Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb (ASEL and ASES)
    • Short-Field (Confined Area-ASES) Approach and Landing (ASEL and ASES)
    • Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb (ASES)
    • Glassy Water Approach and Landing (ASES)
    • Rough Water Takeoff and Climb (ASES)
    • Rough Water Approach and Landing (ASES)
    • Forward Slip to a Landing (ASEL and ASES)
    • Go-Around/Rejected Landing (ASEL and ASES)
  5. PERFORMANCE MANEUVER
    • Steep Turns (ASEL and ASES)
  6. GROUND REFERENCE MANEUVERS
    • Rectangular Course (ASEL and ASES)
    • S-Turns (ASEL and ASES)
    • Turns Around a Point (ASEL and ASES)
  7. NAVIGATION
    • Pilotage (ASEL and ASES)
    • Diversion (ASEL and ASES)
    • Lost Procedures (ASEL and ASES)
  8. SLOW FLIGHT AND STALLS
    • Maneuvering During Slow Flight (ASEL and ASES)
    • Power-Off Stalls (ASEL and ASES)
    • Power-On Stalls (ASEL and ASES)
    • Spin Awareness (ASEL and ASES)
  9. EMERGENCY OPERATIONS
    • Emergency Approach and Landing (Simulated) (ASEL and ASES)
    • Systems and Equipment Malfunctions (ASEL and ASES)
    • Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear (ASEL and ASES)
  10. POSTFLIGHT PROCEDURES
    • After Landing, Parking, and Securing (ASEL and ASES)
    • Anchoring (ASES)
    • Docking and Mooring (ASES)
    • Ramping/Beaching (ASES)

AREAS OF OPERATION:

I. PREFLIGHT PREPARATION

A. TASK: CERTIFICATES AND DOCUMENTS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: 14 CFR parts 43, 61, 91; FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-25; AFM/POH/FAA Operating Limitations.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to certificates and documents by:

  1. Explaining—
    1. certificate privileges, limitations, and currency experience requirements.
    2. medical eligibility.
    3. pilot logbook or flight records.
  2. Locating and explaining—
    1. airworthiness and registration certificates.
    2. operating limitations, placards, instrument markings, and flight training supplement.
    3. weight and balance data and/or equipment list, as applicable.

B. TASK: AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: 14 CFR part 91; FAA-H-8083-25; Aircraft Operating Limitations.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to airworthiness requirements by:

  1. Explaining—
    1. required instruments and equipment for sport pilot privileges.
    2. procedures and limitations for determining if an aircraft, with inoperative instruments and or equipment, is airworthy or in a condition for safe operation.
  2. Explaining—
    1. airworthiness directives/safety directives (As applicable to the aircraft brought for flight test.)
    2. maintenance/inspection requirements and appropriate record keeping.

C. TASK: WEATHER INFORMATION (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: 14 CFR part 91; AC 00-6, AC 00-45, AC 61-84; FAA-H-8083-25; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to real time weather information appropriate to the specific category/class aircraft by consulting the weather reports, charts, and forecasts from aeronautical weather reporting sources.
  2. Makes a competent "go/no-go" decision based on available weather information.

D. TASK: CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT PLANNING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: 14 CFR part 91; FAA-H-8083-25; AC 61-84; Navigation Charts; A/FD; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to cross-country flight planning appropriate to the category/class aircraft.
  2. Uses appropriate and current aeronautical charts.
  3. Properly identifies airspace, obstructions, and terrain features.
  4. Selects easily identifiable en route checkpoints, as appropriate.
  5. Selects most favorable altitudes considering weather conditions and equipment capabilities.
  6. Computes headings, flight time, and fuel requirements.
  7. Selects appropriate navigation system/facilities and communication frequencies, if so equipped.
  8. Applies pertinent information from NOTAMs, A/FD, and other flight publications.
  9. Completes a navigation log and simulates filing a VFR flight plan.

E. TASK: NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: 14 CFR parts 71, 91; Navigation Charts; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to the National Airspace System by explaining:

  1. Sport pilot privileges applicable to the following classes of airspace:
    1. Class B.
    2. Class C.
    3. Class D.
    4. Class E.
    5. Class G.
    6. Special use and other airspace areas.
    7. Temporary flight restrictions (TFRs).

F. TASK: OPERATION OF SYSTEMS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-25; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to the operation of systems on the light-sport aircraft provided for the flight test by explaining at least three (3) of the following systems, if applicable:

  1. Primary flight controls and trim.
  2. Flaps and lift-enhancing devices.
  3. Water rudders.
  4. Powerplant and propeller.
  5. Landing gear, brakes, and steering.
  6. Fuel, oil, and hydraulic.
  7. Electrical.
  8. Avionics.
  9. Pitot-static, vacuum/pressure, and associated flight instruments.

G. TASK: AEROMEDICAL FACTORS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-25; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to aeromedical factors by explaining:

  1. The effects of alcohol, drugs, and over-the-counter medications.
  2. The symptoms, causes, effects, and corrective actions of at least three (3) of the following—
    1. hypoxia.
    2. hyperventilation.
    3. middle ear and sinus problems.
    4. spatial disorientation.
    5. motion sickness.
    6. carbon monoxide poisoning.
    7. stress and fatigue.
    8. dehydration.
    9. hypothermia.

H. TASK: WATER AND SEAPLANE CHARACTERISTICS (ASES)

REFERENCE: FAA-H-8083-23.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to water and seaplane characteristics by explaining:

  1. The characteristics of a water surface as affected by features, such as—
    1. size and location.
    2. protected and unprotected areas.
    3. surface wind.
    4. direction and strength of water current.
    5. floating and partially submerged debris.
    6. sandbars, islands, and shoals.
    7. vessel traffic and wakes.
    8. other features peculiar to the area.
  2. Float and hull construction, and their effect on seaplane performance, as applicable.
  3. Causes of porpoising and skipping, and the pilot action required to prevent or correct these occurrences.

I. TASK: SEAPLANE BASES, MARITIME RULES, AND AIDS TO MARINE NAVIGATION (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to seaplane bases, maritime rules, and aids to marine navigation by explaining:

  1. How to locate and identify seaplane bases on charts or in directories.
  2. Operating restrictions at seaplane bases, if applicable.
  3. Right-of-way, steering, and sailing rules pertinent to seaplane operation.
  4. Marine navigation aids, such as buoys, beacons, lights, and sound signals.

J. TASK: PERFORMANCE AND LIMITATIONS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-1, FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25; AC 61-84; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to performance and limitations by explaining the use of charts, tables, and data if appropriate, to determine performance and the adverse effects of exceeding limitations.
  2. Exhibits knowledge of the principles of weight and balance by explaining weight and balance terms and the effect of weight and balance on airplane performance.
  3. Determines if weight and center of gravity will remain within limits during all phases of flight.
  4. Describes the effects of atmospheric conditions on the airplane's performance.
  5. Determines whether the computed performance is within the airplane's capabilities and operating limitations.

K. TASK: PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-25; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine the applicant exhibits knowledge of basic aerodynamics and principles of flight including:

  1. Forces acting on an airplane in various flight maneuvers.
  2. Airplane stability and controllability.
  3. Torque effect.
  4. Wingtip vortices and precautions to be taken.
  5. Loads and load factors.
  6. Angle of attack, stalls and stall recovery, including flight situations in which unintentional stalls may occur.
  7. Effects and use of primary and secondary flight controls including the purpose of each control and proper technique for use.

II. PREFLIGHT PROCEDURES

NOTE: For single-seat applicants, the examiner shall select at least TASKs A, C, and D.

A. TASK: PREFLIGHT INSPECTION (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to preflight inspection. This shall include which items must be inspected, the reasons for checking each item, and how to detect possible defects.
  2. Inspects the airplane with reference to an appropriate checklist.
  3. Verifies the airplane is in condition for safe flight.

B. TASK: COCKPIT MANAGEMENT (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to efficient cockpit management procedures, and related safety factors.
  2. Organizes and arranges material and equipment in a manner that makes the items readily available.
  3. Briefs occupant on the use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and any other required safety equipment, doors, and emergency procedures.

C. TASK: ENGINE STARTING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25; AC 91-13; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to recommended engine starting procedures. This shall include pull starting, hand propping safety, and starting under various atmospheric conditions, if applicable.
  2. Demonstrates awareness of other persons and property during start.
  3. Positions the airplane properly considering structures, surface conditions, other aircraft, and the safety of nearby persons and property.
  4. Accomplishes the correct starting procedure.
  5. Completes the appropriate checklist.

D. TASK: TAXIING (ASEL)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to safe taxi procedures.
  2. Performs a brake check if applicable, immediately after the airplane begins moving.
  3. Positions the flight controls properly for the existing wind conditions.
  4. Safely controls airplane direction and speed.
  5. Complies with airport markings, signals, clearances, and instructions.
  6. Taxis so as to avoid other aircraft and hazards.

E. TASK: TAXIING AND SAILING (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; USCG Navigation Rules; International-Inland; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to water taxiing and sailing procedures.
  2. Positions the flight controls properly for the existing wind conditions.
  3. Plans and follows the most favorable course while taxiing or sailing, considering wind, water current, water conditions, and maritime regulations.
  4. Uses the appropriate idle, plow, or step taxi technique.
  5. Uses flight controls, flaps, doors, water rudder, and power correctly so as to follow the desired course while sailing.
  6. Prevents and corrects for porpoising and skipping.
  7. Avoids other aircraft, vessels, and hazards.
  8. Complies with seaplane base signs, signals, and clearances.

F. TASK: BEFORE TAKEOFF CHECK (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to the before takeoff check, including the reasons for checking each item and how to detect malfunctions.
  2. Positions the airplane properly considering other aircraft/vessels, wind, and surface conditions.
  3. Divides attention inside and outside the cockpit.
  4. Accomplishes the before takeoff checklist and ensures the airplane is in safe operating condition.
  5. Reviews takeoff performance, such as airspeeds, takeoff distances, departure, and emergency procedures.
  6. Avoids runway incursions and/or ensures no conflict with traffic prior to taxiing into takeoff position.
  7. Completes the appropriate checklist.

III. AIRPORT AND SEAPLANE BASE OPERATIONS

NOTE: For single-seat applicants, the examiner shall select TASK A.

A. TASK: RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND ATC LIGHT SIGNALS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: 14 CFR part 91; FAA-H-8083-25; AIM.

NOTE: If the aircraft is not radio equipped, this TASK shall be tested orally for procedures ONLY. Exception: single-seat applicants must be radio equipped.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to radio communications at airports without operating control towers.
  2. Selects appropriate frequencies.
  3. Transmits using recommended phraseology.
  4. Acknowledges communications and complies with instructions.

B. TASK: TRAFFIC PATTERNS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-25; AC 90-66; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to traffic patterns and shall include procedures at airports with CTAF, prevention of runway incursions, collision avoidance, wake turbulence avoidance, and wind shear.
  2. Complies with proper local traffic pattern procedures.
  3. Maintains proper spacing from other aircraft.
  4. Corrects for wind drift to maintain the proper ground track.
  5. Maintains orientation with the runway/landing area in use.
  6. Maintains traffic pattern altitude, �100 feet, and the appropriate airspeed, �10 knots, if applicable.

C. TASK: AIRPORT RUNWAY MARKINGS AND LIGHTING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to airport/seaplane base, markings and lighting with emphasis on runway incursion avoidance.
  2. Properly identifies and interprets airport/seaplane base markings and lighting.

IV. TAKEOFFS, LANDINGS, AND GO-AROUNDS

NOTE: For single-seat applicants, the examiner shall select all TASKs.

A. TASK: NORMAL AND CROSSWIND TAKEOFF AND CLIMB (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

NOTE: If a crosswind condition does not exist, the applicant's knowledge of crosswind elements shall be evaluated through oral testing.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a normal/ crosswind takeoff and climb and rejected takeoff procedures.
  2. Clears the area and positions the flight controls appropriately for the existing wind conditions.
  3. Retracts the water rudders as appropriate, and establishes and maintains the most efficient planing/lift-off attitude, and corrects for porpoising and skipping. (ASES)
  4. Lifts off at the recommended airspeed and/or attitude, and climbs at that airspeed/climb attitude (+10/-5 knots).
  5. Repositions the landing gear at a minimum safe altitude, if appropriate, and flaps after a positive rate of climb is established and maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  6. Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the takeoff and climb.

B. TASK: NORMAL AND CROSSWIND APPROACH AND LANDING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

NOTE: If a crosswind condition does not exist, the applicant's knowledge of crosswind elements shall be evaluated through oral testing.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a normal and crosswind approach and landing.
  2. Adequately surveys the intended landing area. (ASES)
  3. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and selects a suitable touchdown point.
  4. Establishes the recommended approach and landing configuration and approach airspeed/attitude, adjusting pitch attitude and power as required.
  5. Maintains a stabilized approach and recommended airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3 V SO, +10/-5 knots, and/or appropriate approach attitude, with wind gust factor applied.
  6. Contacts the water at the proper pitch attitude. (ASES)
  7. Touches down smoothly at approximate stalling speed/attitude. (ASEL)
  8. Touches down at or within 400 feet beyond a specified point, with no drift, and with the airplane's longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway center/landing path.
  9. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence.

C. TASK: SOFT-FIELD TAKEOFF AND CLIMB (ASEL)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a soft-field takeoff and climb.
  2. Positions the flight controls for existing wind conditions and to maximize lift as quickly as possible.
  3. Clears the area; taxis onto the takeoff surface at a speed consistent with safety without stopping while advancing the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
  4. Establishes and maintains a pitch attitude that will transfer the weight of the airplane from the wheels to the wings as rapidly as possible.
  5. Lifts off at the lowest possible airspeed and remains in ground effect while accelerating to Vx or Vy, as appropriate.
  6. Establishes a pitch attitude for V x or V y, as appropriate and maintains selected air speed +10/-5 knots, during the climb.
  7. Retracts flaps, if appropriate, after clear of any obstacles or as recommended by the manufacturer.
  8. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  9. Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the takeoff and climb.

D. TASK: SOFT-FIELD APPROACH AND LANDING (ASEL)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a soft-field approach and landing.
  2. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface, and obstructions, and selects the most suitable touchdown area.
  3. Establishes the recommended approach and landing configuration, and airspeed/attitude; adjusts pitch attitude and power as required.
  4. Maintains a stabilized approach and recommended airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3 Vso, +10/-5 knots, and/or appropriate approach attitude.
  5. Touches down softly.
  6. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence.
  7. Maintains proper position of the flight controls and sufficient speed to taxi on the soft surface.

E. TASK: SHORT-FIELD (CONFINED AREA-ASES) TAKEOFF AND MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE CLIMB (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a short-field (Confined Area-ASES) takeoff and maximum performance climb.
  2. Positions the flight controls for the existing wind conditions; sets the flaps, if applicable, as recommended.
  3. Clears the area; taxis into takeoff position utilizing maximum available takeoff area and aligns the airplane on the runway center/takeoff path.
  4. Selects an appropriate take-off path for the existing conditions. (ASES)
  5. Applies brakes (if appropriate) while advancing the throttle.
  6. Establishes and maintains the most efficient planning/lift-off attitude and corrects for porpoising and skipping. (ASES)
  7. Lifts off at the recommended airspeed/attitude, and accelerates to the recommended obstacle clearance airspeed/attitude or Vx .
  8. Establishes a pitch attitude that will maintain the recommended obstacle clearance airspeed, or Vx +10/-5 knots, until the obstacle is cleared, or until the airplane is 50 feet above the surface.
  9. After clearing the obstacle, establishes the pitch attitude for Vy accelerates to Vy, and maintains Vy, +10/-5 knots, during the climb.
  10. Repositions the landing gear at a minimum safe altitude (ASES), if appropriate, and flaps after clear of any obstacles or as recommended by manufacturer.
  11. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  12. Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the takeoff and climb.

F. TASK: SHORT-FIELD (CONFINED AREA-ASES) APPROACH AND LANDING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a short-field (Confined Area-ASES) approach and landing.
  2. Adequately surveys the intended landing area. (ASES)
  3. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and selects the most suitable touchdown point.
  4. Establishes the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed/attitude; adjusts pitch attitude and power as required.
  5. Maintains a stabilized approach and the recommended approach airspeed/attitude, or in its absence not more than 1.3 Vso, +10/-5 knots.
  6. Selects the proper landing path, contacts the water at the minimum safe airspeed with the proper pitch attitude for the surface conditions. (ASES)
  7. Touches down smoothly at minimum control airspeed. (ASEL)
  8. Touches down at or within 200 feet beyond a specified point.
  9. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence.
  10. Applies brakes if equipped (ASEL), or elevator control (ASES) as necessary, to stop in the shortest distance consistent with safety.

G. TASK: GLASSY WATER TAKEOFF AND CLIMB (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

NOTE: If glassy water condition does not exist, the applicant shall be evaluated by simulating the TASK.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to glassy water takeoff and climb.
  2. Positions the flight controls and flaps for the existing conditions.
  3. Clears the area; selects an appropriate takeoff path considering surface hazards and/or vessels and surface conditions.
  4. Retracts the water rudders as appropriate; advances the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
  5. Establishes and maintains an appropriate planning attitude, directional control, and corrects for porpoising, skipping, and increases in water drag.
  6. Utilizes appropriate techniques to lift seaplane from the water considering surface conditions.
  7. Establishes proper attitude/airspeed and accelerates to V y, +10/-5 knots during the climb.
  8. Repositions the landing gear, if appropriate, and flaps after a positive rate of climb is established.
  9. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  10. Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout takeoff and climb.

H. TASK: GLASSY WATER APPROACH AND LANDING (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH

NOTE: If glassy water condition does not exist, the applicant shall be evaluated by simulating the TASK.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to glassy water approach and landing.
  2. Adequately surveys the intended landing area.
  3. Considers the wind conditions, water depth, hazards, surrounding terrain, and other watercraft.
  4. Selects the most suitable approach path and touchdown area.
  5. Establishes the recommended approach and landing configuration, airspeed/attitude, and adjusts pitch attitude and power as required.
  6. Maintains a stabilized approach and the recommended approach airspeed, +10/-5 knots and/or attitude and maintains a touchdown pitch attitude and descent rate from the last altitude reference until touchdown.
  7. Makes smooth, timely, and correct power and control adjustments to maintain proper pitch attitude and rate of descent to touchdown.
  8. Contacts the water in the proper pitch attitude and slows to idle taxi speed.
  9. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence.

I. TASK: ROUGH WATER TAKEOFF AND CLIMB (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

NOTE: If rough water condition does not exist, the applicant shall be evaluated by simulating the TASK.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to rough water takeoff and climb.
  2. Positions the flight controls and flaps for the existing conditions.
  3. Clears the area; selects an appropriate takeoff path considering wind, swells, surface hazards, and/or vessels.
  4. Retracts the water rudders as appropriate; advances the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.
  5. Establishes and maintains an appropriate planing attitude, directional control, and corrects for porpoising, skipping, or excessive bouncing.
  6. Lifts off at minimum airspeed and accelerates to Vy, +10/-5 knots before leaving ground effect.
  7. Repositions the landing gear, if appropriate, and flaps after a positive rate of climb is established.
  8. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  9. Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout takeoff and climb.

J. TASK: ROUGH WATER APPROACH AND LANDING (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

NOTE: If rough water condition does not exist, the applicant shall be evaluated by simulating the TASK.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to rough water approach and landing.
  2. Adequately surveys the intended landing area.
  3. Considers the wind conditions, water, depth, hazards, surrounding terrain, and other watercraft.
  4. Selects the most suitable approach path and touchdown area.
  5. Establishes the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed/attitude, and adjusts pitch attitude and power as required.
  6. Maintains a stabilized approach and the recommended approach airspeed and/or attitude, or in its absence not more than 1.3 Vso +10/-5 knots with wind gust factor applied.
  7. Makes smooth, timely, and correct power and control inputs during the roundout and touch down.
  8. Contacts the water in the proper pitch attitude and at the proper airspeed, considering the type of rough water.
  9. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence.

K. TASK: FORWARD SLIP TO A LANDING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

NOTE: This TASK applies to airplanes capable of performing slips.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to forward slip to a landing.
  2. Considers the wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and selects the most suitable touchdown point.
  3. Establishes the slipping attitude at the point from which a landing can be made using the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed; adjusts pitch attitude and power as required.
  4. Maintains a ground track aligned with the runway center/landing path and an airspeed/attitude, which results in minimum float during the roundout.
  5. Makes smooth, timely, and correct control application during the recovery from the slip, the roundout, and the touchdown.
  6. Touches down smoothly at the approximate stalling speed, at or within 400 feet beyond a specified point.
  7. Maintains crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence.

L. TASK: GO-AROUND/REJECTED LANDING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a go-around/rejected landing.
  2. Makes a timely decision to discontinue the approach to landing.
  3. Applies takeoff power immediately and transitions to climb pitch attitude for Vy, and maintains Vy +10/-5 knots and/or the appropriate pitch attitude.
  4. Retracts the flaps as appropriate.
  5. Repositions the landing gear at a minimum safe altitude, if appropriate (ASES), after a positive rate of climb is established.
  6. Maneuvers to the side of the runway/landing area to clear and avoid conflicting traffic.
  7. Maintains takeoff power to a safe maneuvering altitude.
  8. Maintains directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the climb.

V. PERFORMANCE MANEUVER

A. TASK: STEEP TURNS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to steep turns.
  2. Establishes the manufacturer's recommended airspeed or if one is not stated, a safe airspeed not to exceed V A.
  3. Rolls into a coordinated 360° turn; maintains a 45° bank.
  4. Performs the task in the opposite direction, as specified by the examiner.
  5. Divides attention between airplane control and orientation.
  6. Maintains the entry altitude, �100 feet, airspeed, �10 knots, bank, �5°; and rolls out on the entry heading, �10°.

VI. GROUND REFERENCE MANEUVERS

NOTE: The examiner shall select at least one ground reference maneuver.

NOTE: For single-seat applicants, the examiner shall select at least one ground reference maneuver.

A. TASK: RECTANGULAR COURSE (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCE: FAA-H-8083-3.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to a rectangular course.
  2. Selects a suitable reference area.
  3. Plans the maneuver so as to not descend below a minimum altitude of 600 feet above the ground at an appropriate distance from the selected reference area, 45° to the downwind leg.
  4. Applies adequate wind-drift correction during straight-and-turning flight to maintain a constant ground track around the rectangular reference area.
  5. Divides attention between airplane control and the ground track while maintaining coordinated flight.
  6. Maintains altitude, �100 feet; maintains airspeed, �10 knots.

B. TASK: S-TURNS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCE: FAA-H-8083-3.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to S-turns.
  2. Selects a suitable ground reference line.
  3. Plans the maneuver so as to not descend below a minimum altitude of 600 feet above the ground perpendicular to the selected reference line.
  4. Applies adequate wind-drift correction to track a constant radius turn on each side of the selected reference line.
  5. Reverses the direction of turn directly over the selected reference line.
  6. Divides attention between airplane control, orientation and the ground track while maintaining coordinated flight.
  7. Maintains altitude, �100 feet; maintains airspeed, �10 knots.

C. TASK: TURNS AROUND A POINT (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCE: FAA-H-8083-3.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to turns around a point.
  2. Selects an appropriate reference point based on wind direction and emergency landing areas.
  3. Plans the maneuver so as not to descend below a minimum altitude of 600 feet above ground level at an appropriate distance from the reference point.
  4. Applies adequate wind-drift correction to track a constant radius turn around the selected reference point.
  5. Divides attention between airplane control and the ground track while maintaining coordinated flight.
  6. Exits at the point of entry heading �15°.
  7. Maintains altitude, �100 feet; maintains airspeed, �10 knots.

VII. NAVIGATION

A. TASK: PILOTAGE AND DEAD RECKONING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCE: FAA-H-8083-25.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to pilotage and dead reckoning, as appropriate.
  2. Follows the preplanned course by reference to landmarks.
  3. Identifies landmarks by relating surface features to chart symbols.
  4. Verifies the airplane's position within 3 nautical miles of the flight-planned route.
  5. Determines there is sufficient fuel to complete the flight. If not, develops an alternate plan.
  6. Maintains the appropriate altitude �200 feet; and headings �15°.

B. TASK: DIVERSION (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-25; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to diversion.
  2. Selects an appropriate alternate airport, or landing area and route.
  3. Determines there is sufficient fuel to fly to the alternate airport or landing area.
  4. Maintains the appropriate altitude, �200 feet and headings, �15°.

C. TASK: LOST PROCEDURES (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-25; AIM.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to lost procedures.
  2. Selects an appropriate course of action.
  3. Maintains an appropriate heading and climbs, if necessary.
  4. Identifies prominent landmarks.
  5. Uses navigation systems/facilities and or contacts an ATC facility for assistance, as appropriate.

VIII. SLOW FLIGHT AND STALLS

A. TASK: MANEUVERING DURING SLOW FLIGHT (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to maneuvering during slow flight.
  2. Selects an entry altitude consistent with safety, which allows the TASK to be completed no lower than 1,000 feet AGL.
  3. Establishes and maintains an airspeed at which any further increase in angle of attack, increase in load factor, or reduction in power, would result in an immediate stall.
  4. Accomplishes coordinated straight-and-level flight, turns, climbs, and descents with landing gear extended and retracted as appropriate, and various flap configurations, if appropriate, specified by the examiner.
  5. Divides attention between airplane control and orientation.
  6. Maintains the specified altitude, �100 feet; specified heading, �10°; airspeed, +10/-0 knots and specified angle of bank, �10°.

B. TASK: POWER-OFF STALLS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: AC 61-67; FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to power-off stalls.
  2. Selects an entry altitude consistent with safety, which allows the TASK to be completed no lower than 1,000 feet AGL.
  3. Establishes a stabilized descent in the approach or landing configuration, as specified by the examiner.
  4. Transitions smoothly from the approach or landing attitude to a pitch attitude that will induce a stall.
  5. Maintains a specified heading, �10°, in straight flight; maintains a specified angle of bank not to exceed 20°, �10°; in turning flight, while inducing the stall.
  6. Recognizes and recovers promptly after the stall occurs by simultaneously reducing the angle of attack, increasing power to maximum allowable, and leveling the wings to return to a straight-and-level flight attitude with a minimum loss of altitude appropriate for the airplane.
  7. Retracts the flaps to the recommended setting; repositions the landing gear if appropriate, after a positive rate-of-climb is established. (ASES)
  8. Accelerates to Vx or Vy speed and/or the appropriate pitch attitude before the final flap retraction; returns to the altitude, heading, and airspeed/appropriate pitch attitude specified by the examiner.

C. TASK: POWER-ON STALLS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: AC 61-67; FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

NOTE: In some high performance airplanes, the power setting may have to be reduced below the practical test standards guideline power setting to prevent excessively high pitch attitudes (greater than 30º nose up).

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to power-on stalls.
  2. Selects an entry altitude consistent with safety, which allows the TASK to be completed no lower than 1,000 feet AGL.
  3. Establishes the takeoff or departure configuration. Sets power to no less than 65 percent available power.
  4. Transitions smoothly from the takeoff or departure attitude to the pitch attitude that will induce a stall.
  5. Maintains a specified heading, �10°, in straight flight; maintains a specified angle of bank not to exceed 20°, �10°, in turning flight, while inducing the stall.
  6. Recognizes and recovers promptly after the stall occurs by simultaneously reducing the angle of attack, increasing power as appropriate, and leveling the wings to return to a straight-and-level flight attitude with a minimum loss of altitude appropriate for the airplane.
  7. Retracts the flaps to the recommended setting; after a positive rate of climb is established.
  8. Accelerates to Vx or Vy speed and/or the appropriate pitch attitude before the final flap retraction; returns to the altitude, heading, and airspeed/pitch attitude specified by the examiner.

D. TASK: SPIN AWARENESS (ASEL and ASES) (Oral Only)

REFERENCES: AC 61-67; FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to spin awareness by explaining:

  1. Aerodynamic factors that cause spins.
  2. Flight situations where unintentional spins may occur.
  3. Procedures for avoidance and recovery from unintentional spins.

IX. EMERGENCY OPERATIONS

NOTE: For single-seat applicants, the examiner shall select TASK A.

A. TASK: EMERGENCY APPROACH AND LANDING (SIMULATED) (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to emergency approach and landing procedures.
  2. Analyzes the situation and selects an appropriate course of action.
  3. Establishes and maintains the recommended best-glide airspeed �10 knots /pitch attitude.
  4. Selects a suitable landing area.
  5. Plans and follows a flight pattern to the selected landing area considering altitude, wind, terrain, and obstructions.
  6. Prepares for landing or go-around, as specified by the examiner.

B. TASK: SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to system and equipment malfunctions appropriate to the airplane provided for the practical test.
  2. Evaluates the situation and takes appropriate action for simulated emergencies appropriate to the airplane provided for the practical test for at least three (3) of the following—
    1. partial or complete power loss.
    2. engine roughness or overheat.
    3. carburetor or induction icing.
    4. loss of oil pressure.
    5. fuel starvation.
    6. electrical malfunction.
    7. vacuum/pressure and associated flight instruments malfunction.
    8. pitot/static.
    9. flap malfunction.
    10. inoperative trim.
    11. inadvertent door or window opening.
    12. smoke/fire/engine compartment fire.
    13. flight control malfunction.
    14. ballistic recovery system malfunction, if applicable.
    15. any other emergency appropriate to the airplane.
  3. Follows the appropriate checklist or procedure.

C. TASK: EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT AND SURVIVAL GEAR (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

NOTE: This TASK shall be evaluated orally.

Objective. To determine that the applicant exhibits knowledge of the elements related to emergency equipment appropriate to the following environmental conditions:

  1. mountain terrain.
  2. large bodies of water.
  3. desert conditions.
  4. extreme temperature changes.

X. POSTFLIGHT PROCEDURES

NOTE: The examiner shall select Task A and for ASES applicants at least one other TASK.

NOTE: For single-seat applicants, the examiner shall select at least TASK A and all other TASKs as applicable.

A. TASK: AFTER LANDING, PARKING, AND SECURING (ASEL and ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to after landing, parking, and securing procedures.
  2. Maintains directional control after touchdown while decelerating to an appropriate speed.
  3. Observes runway hold lines and other surface control markings.
  4. Parks in an appropriate area, considering the safety of nearby persons and property.
  5. Follows the appropriate procedure for engine shutdown.
  6. Completes the appropriate checklist.
  7. Conducts an appropriate postflight inspection and secures the aircraft.

B. TASK: ANCHORING (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to anchoring.
  2. Selects a suitable area for anchoring, considering seaplane movement, water depth, tide, wind, and weather changes.
  3. Uses an adequate number of anchors and lines of sufficient strength and length to ensure the seaplane's security.

C. TASK: DOCKING AND MOORING (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to docking and mooring.
  2. Approaches the dock or mooring buoy in the proper direction considering speed, hazards, wind, and water current.
  3. Ensures seaplane security.

D. TASK: RAMPING/BEACHING (ASES)

REFERENCES: FAA-H-8083-23; AFM/POH.

Objective. To determine that the applicant:

  1. Exhibits knowledge of the elements related to ramping/beaching.
  2. Approaches the ramp/beach, considering persons and property in the proper attitude and direction, at a safe speed, considering water depth, tide, current, and wind.
  3. Ramps/beaches and secures the seaplane in a manner that will protect it from the harmful effect of wind, waves, and changes in water level.

SPORT PILOT, FAR 61, Subpart J

A. Eligibility requirements: 61.305 and 61.307

  • Be at least 17 years old (or 16 years old if you are applying to operate a glider or balloon): 61.305 (a)(1).
  • Be able to read, speak, write, and understand English. If you cannot read, speak, write, and understand English because of medical reasons, the FAA may place limits on your certificate as are necessary for the safe operation of light-sport aircraft: 61.305 (a)(2).
  • Receive ground training and the required knowledge test logbook endorsement: 61.307(a).
  • Pass the required knowledge test: 61.307(a)
  • Receive flight training and meet the aeronautical experience requirements: 61.307(b)
  • Receive the required practical test endorsement: 61.307(b)
  • Pass the practical test: 61.307(b)

B. Knowledge test requirements 61.309

  • Receive and log ground training or complete a home-study course on the following:
    • Applicable regulations of this chapter that relate to sport pilot privileges, limits, and flight operations;
    • Accident reporting requirements of the NTSB;
    • Use of the applicable portions of the AIM, FAA ACs;
    • Use of aeronautical charts for VFR navigation using pilotage, dead reckoning, and navigation systems;
  • Recognition of :
    • Critical weather situations from the ground and in flight;
    • Windshear avoidance; and
    • Procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts.
      • Safe and efficient operation of aircraft, including:
      • Collision avoidance; and
      • Recognition and avoidance of wake turbulence.
      • Effects of density altitude on takeoff and climb performance;
      • Weight and balance computations;
      • Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants, and aircraft systems;
      • Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery techniques;
      • Aeronautical decision making and risk management; and
      • Preflight actions that include—
        • How to get information on: Runway lengths at airports of intended use; Data on takeoff and landing distances; Weather reports and forecasts; Fuel requirements.
        • How to plan for alternatives if the planned flight cannot be completed or if you encounter delays.

C. Flight proficiency requirements: 61.311

Receive and log ground and flight training on the following areas of operation, as appropriate:

  • Preflight preparation;
  • Preflight procedures;
  • Airport operations, as applicable;
  • Takeoffs, landings, and go-around;
  • Performance maneuvers;
  • Ground reference maneuvers;
  • Navigation;
  • Slow flight;
  • Stalls;
  • Emergency operations;
  • Post-flight procedures.

D. Aeronautical experience (flight time) requirements: 61.313

Receive and log at least 20 hours of flight training time that includes at least:

  • 15 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor:
    • 2 hours of cross country flight training
    • 10 takeoffs and landings to a full stop at an airport (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern)
    • 3 hours of flight training within 60 days for the practical test
    • 5 hours of solo flight that includes:
      • 1 solo cross country flight of at least 75 nautical mile total distance

E. Sport Pilot Certificate Endorsements

  1. General Limitations: 61.89(c)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) may not act as pilot in command of an aircraft other than a light-sport aircraft; at night; at an altitude of more than 10,000 feet MSL; and in Class B, C, and D airspace, at an airport located in Class B, C, or D airspace, and to, from, through, or on an airport having an operational control tower.

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  2. Presolo aeronautical knowledge: 61.87(b)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has satisfactorily completed the presolo knowledge exam of � 61.87(b) for the (make and model aircraft).

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  3. Presolo flight training: 61.87(c)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required presolo training in a (make and model aircraft). I have determined he/she has demonstrated the proficiency of � 61.87(d) and is proficient to make solo flights in (make and model aircraft).

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  4. Solo flight (each additional 90-day period): 61.87(p)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training to qualify for solo flying. I have determined he/she meets the applicable requirements of � 61.87(p) and is proficient to make solo flights in (make and model).

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  5. Solo takeoffs and landings at another airport within 25 NM: 61.93(b)(1)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of � 61.93(b)(1). I have determined that he/she is proficient to practice solo takeoffs and landings at (airport name). The takeoffs and landings at (airport name) are subject to the following conditions: (List any applicable conditions or limitations.)

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  6. Initial solo cross-country flight: 61.93(c)(1)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required solo cross-country training. I find he/she has met the applicable requirements of � 61.93, and is proficient to make solo cross-country flights in a (make and model aircraft).

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  7. Solo cross-country flight: 61.93(c)(2)

    I have reviewed the cross-country planning of (First name, MI, Last name). I find the planning and preparation to be correct to make the solo flight from (location) to (destination) via (route of flight) with landings at (name the airports) in a (make and model aircraft) on (date). (List any applicable conditions or limitations.)

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  8. Repeated solo cross-country flights not more than 50nm from the point of departure: 61.93(b)(2)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training in both directions between and at both (airport names). I have determined that he/she is proficient of � 61.93(b)(2) to conduct repeated solo cross-country flights over that route, subject to the following conditions: (List any applicable conditions or limitations.)

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  9. Solo flight in Class B, C, and D airspace: 61.94(a)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of � 61.94 (a). I have determined he/she is proficient to conduct solo flights in (name of Class B, C, or D) airspace. (List any applicable conditions or limitations.)

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

  10. Solo flight to, from, or at an airport located in Class B, C, or D airspace: 61.94(a) and 91.131(b)(1)

    I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of � 61.94 (a)(1). I have determined that he/she is proficient to conduct solo flight operations at (name of airport). (List any applicable conditions or limitations.)

    S/S [date] J.J. Jones 987654321CFI
    Exp. 12-31-06

Sport pilot is new and the FAA is still modifying some of the required endorsements. For updates or additional endorsements please visit the FAA's sport pilot Web site.


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Updated Tuesday, November 29, 2005 8:49:53 AM