April 17, 2008
Read about AOPA Pilot editors’ most memorable crosswinds in their online blog (you can post comments to their entries), and consider AOPA Air Safety Foundation Executive Director Bruce Landsberg’s safety tips.
Hundreds of pilots have shared their crosswind landing techniques with AOPA during the past two weeks. So we decided to share some of the AOPA staff pilots’ techniques with you. See how our techniques compare with yours.
Aircraft: Cessna 172s and 182s Technique: Combination—crab to short final/runway threshold, then transition to slip. Reason: Don’t like being cross-controlled while low and slow. Goes against my core ASF principles.
Aircraft: Citabria, Pitts, Piper Pawnee, King Air 300 Technique: Crab all the way to just above touchdown (maybe 20 feet above the runway), then use rudder to straighten the fuselage, lowering the wing simultaneously into the wind. I always land on one of the main gear wheels and balance in that position until speed bleeds off and all wheels settle onto the runway. Ailerons always stay turned into the wind. Reason: I carry over my tailwheel technique to nosewheel planes, and it works just dandy.
Aircraft: Piper Arrow, Cessna 182, Cessna 150 Technique: Combo. Reason: Since I like to fly IFR, it’s easier to fly a crab down the glideslope, then kick out over the threshold and put a wing low into the wind. Crab angle gives me a good indication of how hard the crosswind is blowing. Once, flying in a Piper Arrow to a narrow strip in Central California, I was looking at the runway on final through the side window...good indication that the crosswind component exceeded the airplane’s—and my—abilities! I flew to another airport nearby with a runway more aligned with the brisk and gusty wind.
Aircraft: Citabrias, Huskies, Bonanzas, Piper Archers, Cessna 172s, various gliders Technique: Just fly the airplane. Reason: I started flying gliders at an early age, so I don’t consciously think about stick-and-rudder stuff—I just do what comes naturally. Having said that, I’m really more of a slip man. The crab method requires conscious thinking about when to kick out and can get interesting at night. On calm wind days, I use the rudder (more like a slight crab) to keep the centerline locked in on final. All you need is to move the nose a degree or two instead of banking, which only leads to more control inputs and inefficient flying.
Aircraft: Light singles Technique: Combination. It’s generally worked well for me to fly roughly half the final approach leg crabbed into the wind before transitioning into a slip. Reason: I find it easier to get a feel for what the wind’s doing while “crabbing”...and switching over halfway gives me plenty of time to get the slip sorted out prior to touchdown.
Aircraft: Cessna 172s and Piper Archers Technique: Crab until the flair and then transition to a wing-low touchdown. Reason: I learned the slip method first, but this method just is more comfortable for me and results in better landings.
Aircraft: Cessna 172 Technique: Combination. Crab until over the fence, then slip. Reason: It works. Minimizes queasy stomachs of passengers.
Aircraft: Cessna 172, Piper J-3 Cub, and formerly Boeing 757/767 Technique: Combination. Crab down final until approximately 100 feet agl, then wing down into the wind and opposite rudder to maintain runway centerline. Touchdown on upwind wheel. Reason: I noticed that when conducting autolands in the Boeing 757/767 that the autopilot system does exactly that. At 500 feet radio altitude, the ailerons command a slight bank into the wind. The airplane is cross-controlled until the flare, whereupon the corrections are neutralized and the airplane is landed normally.
Aircraft: Piper Archer Technique: Personally I slip the aircraft. Reason: I don’t want to entrust a safe landing to a last-minute reconfiguration of the aircraft from a crab into proper nose attitude and heading. For me the slip allows me to continually refine the aircraft’s attitude down the glidepath versus a last-second hurried manipulation of the controls to get the aircraft pointed in the right direction. Besides, it’s easier on the tires (less sideloading if I screw up the crab transition)!
Aircraft: Cessna 172s and Piper Archers Technique: Slip. Reason: In short, it was the technique my CFIs have had me use for landing in a crosswind. I flew mostly in the mornings during my training (and still do), and there isn’t usually much wind. I would like to learn and practice the crab technique since I think it is probably more comfortable for the passengers.
Aircraft: Piper Archers and Cessna 172s, 182s Technique: Combination of the slip and crab techniques Reason: I can vary what I need to do based on what passengers I’m carrying (some don’t care for a crab or slip), my desire to do something different (slip all the way in if it’s been a while since I’ve practiced that), and what the winds are doing.
Aircraft: Liberty XL-2 Technique: Crab to slip technique. I simply crab the airplane until the point of flair when I simultaneously straighten the nose and put the upwind wing down to control lateral drifting. Upwind gear touches first, followed by downwind gear, and then the nose. Reason: It’s easy to set up in a crab when you are on a 1.5-2 nm final, and once you have been doing it this way for a while, it gives you a very good gauge as to how strong the winds are. More importantly, I never nor do I ever teach my students to cross-control (slip) the airplane on final. Because the aircraft is generally in slow flight, there is an increased risk for a cross-controlled stall, which can be very startling at altitude and fatal at traffic pattern altitudes. Notwithstanding, flying an entire final leg while slipping is quite uncomfortable for both pilot and passengers.
April 17, 2008
Pilot Safety and Skills,
GA Safety and Accidents
Your mission: Fly with eight F-15s to the Philippines, rejoin, refuel with air tankers, engage an unknown number of Red Air fighters, refuel again, and then return home to Okinawa. And fly with radio silence up to the first contact with the Red Air fighters.
The Aviation Safety Reporting System is a voluntary safety reporting program that allows airmen to make anonymous reports to the government about issues encountered in aviation, with anonymity allowing the airman to be candid–even when their actions may have been a violation of the regulations.
AOPA WELCOMES PRESIDENT OBAMA’S SIGNATURE ON SMALL PLANE REVITALIZATION ACT
AOPA thanks our members for their continued support in protecting the freedom to fly.