For starters, LAHSO include landing and holding short of an intersecting runway, an intersecting taxiway, or some other designated point on a runway other than an intersecting runway or taxiway. (See Figures 1-3.)
Figure 1-LAHSO of intersecting taxiway
FIGURES 1, 2, and 3. - (1) Land and hold short of an intersecting runway, (2) Land and hold short of an intersecting taxiway, and (3) Land and hold short of a designated point on a runway other than an intersecting runway or taxiway. (In this latter case, for example, holding short at a designated point may be required to avoid conflicts with the runway safety area/flight path of a nearby runway.) Each figure shows the approximate location of LAHSO markings, signage, and in-pavement lighting when installed. For further information on LAHSO markings, signage, and lighting, see the Airman's Information Manual, Chanter 2, "Aeronautical Lighting and Other Airport Visual Aids."
Figure 2-LAHSO of intersecting taxiway
Figure 3-LAHSO of designated point on runway
SOIR has been used as a tool by air traffic controllers to increase airport capacity since 1968. SOIR has grown into a procedure now used at over 850 intersecting runway combinations at more than 220 airports in the United States, including many general aviation only (i.e., non FAR Part 139) airports.
Tens of thousands of safe landings and departures have been achieved using SOIR. As airport operations increase, operations such as SOIR will become even more important, allowing aviation to grow while keeping expensive airport construction and delays down.
The term LAHSO now replaces SOIR because SOIR is being expanded to include landing operations to hold short of an intersecting taxiway and to hold short of a designated point (such as a flight path hold short point). Increased LAHSO operations on wet runways are also anticipated.
At controlled airports, air traffic may clear a pilot to land and hold short provided certain weather minimums and runway lengths are available, among other considerations. Pilots may accept such a clearance provided that the pilot-in-command determines that the aircraft can safely land and stop within the Available Landing Distance (ALD). ALD data are published in the special notices section of the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD). Controllers will also provide ALD data upon request. Student pilots or pilots not familiar with LAHSO should not participate in the program.
The pilot-in-command has the final authority to accept or decline any land and hold short clearance. The safety and operation of the aircraft remain the responsibility of the pilot. Pilots are expected to decline a LAHSO clearance if they determine it will compromise safety.
FAR Part 121 and 135 operators (air carrier and air taxi) are required to develop appropriate training programs and procedures before receiving LAHSO approval authorization.
To conduct LAHSO, pilots should become familiar with all available information concerning LAHSO at their destination airport. Pilots should have, readily available, the published ALD and runway slope information for all LAHSO runway combinations at each airport of intended landing. Additionally, knowledge about the aircraft's landing performance data permits the pilot to readily determine that the ALD for the assigned runway is sufficient for safe LAHSO. As part of a pilot's preflight planning process, pilots should determine if their destination airport has LAHSO. Domestic airports with LAHSO will have a note in the "Airport Remarks" section of the A/FD stating "See SPECIAL NOTICE-Land and Hold Short Operations." For airports that have LAHSO, the preflight planning process should include an assessment of which LAHSO combinations would be acceptable given their aircraft's required landing distance. Good pilot decision making is knowing in advance whether one can accept a LAHSO clearance if offered.
The decision to accept a LAHSO clearance is completely up to the pilot. Many LAHSO combinations provide generous margins for most aircraft. Others may not. Consequently, it's up to the pilot or operator to establish their own margins and to use these standards as a basis to either accept or decline a LAHSO clearance.
If, for any reason, such as difficulty in discerning the location of a LAHSO intersection, wind conditions, aircraft condition, etc., the pilot elects to request to land on the full length of the runway, to land on another runway, or to decline LAHSO, the pilot is expected to promptly inform air traffic, ideally even before the clearance is issued. A LAHSO clearance, once accepted, must be adhered to, just as any other ATC clearance. The exceptions would be if an amended clearance is obtained or if emergency occurs. A LAHSO clearance does not preclude a rejected landing.
Controllers need a full read back of all LAHSO clearances. In this read back, include the words, "HOLD SHORT OF (RUNWAY[TAXIWAY/OR POINT)." In order to reduce frequency congestion, pilots are encouraged to read back the LAHSO clearance without prompting. Don't make the controller ask for a read back!
A pilot who accepts a LAHSO clearance should land and exit the runway at the first convenient taxiway (unless directed otherwise) before reaching the hold short point. Otherwise, the pilot must stop and hold at the hold short point. If a rejected landing becomes necessary after accepting a LAHSO clearance, the pilot should maintain safe separation from other aircraft or vehicles, and should promptly notify the controller.
Remember: Only accept a LAHSO landing clearance if it provides plenty of margin for the aircraft's landing perfomance!
Situational awareness includes effective pilot-controller radio communication. ATC expects pilots to specifically acknowledge and read back all LAHSO clearances as follows:
ATC: "(AIRCRAFT ID) CLEARED TO LAND RUNWAY SIX RIGHT, HOLD SHORT OF TAXIWAY BRAVO FOR CROSSING TRAFFIC."
AIRCRAFT: "(AIRCRAFT ID), WILCO, CLEARED TO LAND RUNWAY SIX RIGHT TO HOLD SHORT OF TAXIWAY BRAVO."
ATC: "(AIRCRAFT ID) CROSS RUNWAY SIX RIGHT AT TAXIWAY BRAVO, LANDING AIRCRAFT WILL HOLD SHORT."
AIRCRAFT: "(AIRCRAFT ID), WILCO, CROSS RUNWAY SIX RIGHT AT BRAVO, LANDING TRAFFIC TO HOLD."
For the most current information on LAHSO, refer to the latest edition of the Airman's Information Manual and
other FAA guidance materials.
For additional copies contact:
FAA, Office of System Safety
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
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