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Education Lecture

Familiarize student with the privileges, obligations and responsibilities of a private pilot. Introduce student to the airplane and preflight and postflight procedures, use of checklists and safety precautions. Familiarize student with the effect and use of flight controls, practice area and local airport.

Lesson 1: Introductory Flight

Dual—ground: 1.0, flight 0.5

Objective:

Introduce student to preflight inspection, flight in a light aircraft, and the four fundamentals of aircraft control.

Discussion topics:

  • Fitness for flight (IM SAFE)
  • Positive exchange of flight controls
  • Required certificates and documents for pilot and aircraft
  • Airplane logbooks and required inspections
  • Aircraft fuel system
  • Aircraft electrical system
  • Location of emergency equipment
  • Use of checklists
  • Weather briefing basics

Introduce:

  • Starting procedures
  • Radio communications
  • Taxiing
  • Before takeoff check
  • Normal and crosswind takeoff and climb
  • Effect and use of primary flight controls and trim
  • Collision avoidance procedures
  • Parking and securing aircraft

Completion standards:

  • Display understanding of aircraft systems, use of checklists, preflight, and postflight procedures
  • Demonstrate understanding of aircraft control

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read Chapter 3 of the Airplane Flying Handbook.

Lesson 2: Four Fundamentals of Flight

Dual—ground: 0.5, flight: 1.0

Objective:

Introduce student to aeronautical decision-making, takeoff, straight and level flight, turns, and landings.

Discussion topics:

  • Aeronautical Decision Making?
  • Cockpit management?
  • Weather factors
  • Aircraft airworthiness

Review:

  • Engine starting
  • Use of checklists
  • Before takeoff check
  • Visual scanning and collision avoidance
  • Parking and securing aircraft

Introduce:

  • Crosswind taxi
  • Normal takeoff
  • Straight and level flight to include use of trim
  • Aircraft configuration changes
  • Speeds associated with use of flaps
  • Normal approach and landing

Completion standards:

  • Smooth engine start (no excessive engaging of starter)
  • Student can explain run-up procedures using checklist
  • Increased proficiency with preflight procedures and ground operations

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read Chapter 3, page 3 of the Airplane Flying Handbook.

Lesson 3: Integrated Flight Instruction

Dual—ground: 0.3, flight: 1.0

Objective:

Develop student's ability to apply coordinated control inputs and introduce the relationship between attitude and aircraft instruments.

Discussion topics:

  • Collision-avoidance procedures
  • Flight instruments and their purpose
  • Required medical and pilot documents

Review:

  • Taxiing techniques
  • Straight and level flight
  • Turns
  • Climbs and descents
  • Normal approach and landing

Introduce:

  • Crosswind takeoff
  • Constant airspeed climb
  • Constant airspeed descent
  • Turns to headings
  • Traffic pattern entry and procedure
  • Crosswind landings

Completion standards:

  • Ability to taxi in varying conditions without assistance
  • Student understands the concept of coordinated flight and can fly the aircraft in a coordinated matter with minimal instructor assistance
  • Student can conduct a stabilized approach and landing with instructor's assistance

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read Chapter 3 of the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge: Aerodynamics of Flight.

Lesson 4: Slow Flight and Stall Recovery

Dual—ground: 0.5, flight: 1.0

Objective:

Introduce student to slow flight and stall characteristics.

Discussion topics:

  • Fundamentals of slow flight and stalls
  • Spin awareness

Review:

  • Constant airspeed climb and descent
  • Turns to headings
  • Practice area familiarization

Introduce:

  • Flight at various airspeeds from cruise to slow flight
  • Maneuvering during slow flight emphasizing correct use of rudder to negate increased adverse yaw at slow airspeeds
  • Power-off stalls and recovery
  • Power-on stalls and recovery

Completion standards:

  • Demonstration of understanding of stall and recovery concept
  • Demonstrates understanding of slow-flight concept through flight at minimum controllable airspeed
  • Altitude, heading, and airspeed at or near PTS standards

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read Chapter 6, Emergency procedures, Aeronautical Information Manual.

Review emergency procedures and checklists, Pilot's Operating Handbook

Lesson 5: Emergency Procedures

Dual—ground: 0.5, flight: 1.0

Objective:

To gain an understanding of emergency operations and to increase understanding of slow flight and stall recovery

Discussion topics:

  • Types of possible emergencies
  • Use of all available resources in an emergency situation

Review:

  • Human factors and symptoms
  • Maneuvering during slow flight
  • Stall recovery

Introduce:

  • Systems and equipment malfunctions
  • Emergency procedures using both memory items and use of checklists
  • Emergency descent
  • Emergency approach and landing

Completion standards:

  • Display increased proficiency with control of airplane
  • Perform unassisted takeoffs
  • Demonstrate basic understanding of emergency operations

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read Chapter 6, Ground Reference Maneuvers and Chapter 9, pages 1-2 on steep turns, Airplane Flying Handbook

Read the November 2001 AOPA Flight Training article "Training Topics: Checkride"

Lesson 6: Steep Turns and Ground Reference Maneuvers

Dual—ground: 0.5, flight: 1.0

Objective:

Introduce student to performance maneuvers

Discussion topics:

  • Steep turns
  • Fundamentals of ground reference maneuvers
  • wake turbulence avoidance

Review:

  • Maneuvering during slow flight
  • Emergency procedures

Introduce:

  • Steep turns
  • Rectangular course
  • S-turns
  • Turns around a point

Completion standards:

  • Ability to maintain specific ground track during ground-reference maneuvers
  • Altitude, airspeed, and heading within PTS standards during straight and level flight

Suggested student homework assignments:

Review previously assigned reading, research the answers to any questions, and be prepared to discuss them during the preflight ground briefing of the review lesson.

Diagram ground reference maneuvers showing wind corrections at different positions during the maneuvers.

Lesson 7: Maneuvers Review

Dual—ground: 0.5, flight: 1.2, simulated instrument: 0.3

Objective:

Review material learned in previous lessons and increase comfort level with the airplane in various flight regimes

Discussion topics:

  • Pilot-in-command (PIC) responsibility and authority
  • Elements of basic instrument maneuvers

Review:

  • Normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings
  • Stall recoveries
  • Steep turns
  • Maneuvering during slow flight
  • Ground reference maneuvers
  • Emergency procedures

Introduce:

  • Flight by reference to instruments

Completion standards:

  • Demonstrate increased proficiency during maneuvers
  • Altitude, airspeed, and heading within within PTS standards during straight and level flight

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read the ASF Operations at Nontowered Airports Safety Advisor or Operations at Towered Airports Safety Advisor, as appropriate to the airport where the lesson will take place.

Review ASF Safety Hot Spot: Operations at Nontowered Airports.

Lesson 8: Traffic Pattern Review

Dual—ground: 0.5, flight: 1.0

Objective: Review and perfect traffic pattern operations, practice takeoffs and landings

Discussion topics:

  • Traffic pattern operations and radio phraseology

Review:

  • Normal and crosswind takeoff and climb
  • Traffic pattern operations
  • Normal and crosswind approach and landing

Introduce:

  • Traffic pattern engine-out procedures
  • Controlled/uncontrolled field operations

Completion standards:

  • Ability to perform takeoffs and landings with no instructor input
  • Stays within traffic pattern and maintains adequate ground track

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read Federal Aviation Regulations on student pilot solo requirements.

Airport/Facilities Directory data on airport at which solo will occur.

Practice getting weather briefings and evaluating suitability of conditions.

Lesson 9: Presolo Review

Dual—ground: 1.0, flight: 1.0, simulated instrument: 0.3

Objective:

Determine that the student is ready for the first solo flight

Discussion topics:

  • Present presolo quiz and correct to 100%
  • Weak areas on quiz

Review:

  • Operation of systems
  • Preflight inspection
  • Engine starting
  • Radio communications
  • Normal and crosswind taxiing
  • Before-takeoff check
  • Normal and crosswind takeoff
  • Climbing and descending turns
  • Straight-and-level flight
  • Turns to headings
  • Stalls and recovery
  • Spin awareness
  • Steep turns
  • Ground reference maneuvers
  • Systems and equipment malfunctions
  • Emergency procedures
  • Traffic patterns
  • Forward slips to landing
  • Go-arounds from rejected landings
  • Normal and crosswind approach and landing
  • PIC responsibility and authority
  • Flight by reference to instruments

Introduce:

  • Flight at slow airspeeds with realistic distractions

Completion standards:

  • Presolo exam completed with 80%
  • Demonstrate readiness for solo flight in the traffic pattern
  • Indicates good understanding of local airport and airspace rules, as well as systems and equipment malfunctions
  • Demonstrate mature PIC decision-making and authority

Suggested student homework assignments:

None

Lesson 10: First Solo

Dual—ground: 0.3, flight: 0.5
Solo—0.5

Objective:

Student demonstrates control of airplane without assistance of on-board instructor

Discussion topics:

  • Student questions
  • Endorse logbook and Student Pilot Certificate

Review:

  • Traffic pattern communications and operations
  • Traffic pattern emergency procedures

Introduce:

  • Radio communications
  • Taxiing
  • Before-takeoff check
  • Normal takeoffs and climbs
  • Traffic patterns
  • Normal approaches and landings
  • After-landing procedures
  • Parking and securing

Completion standards:

  • Student's ability to conduct a safe solo flight in the traffic pattern. At no time will the safety of flight be in question.

Suggested student homework assignments:

None

Lesson 11: Stage Check

Dual—ground: 0.3, flight: 1.5, simulated instrument: 0.3

Objective:

Determine that the student can safely depart the traffic pattern, conduct solo flights in the practice area, and return to the airport and land with no instructor assistance.

Discussion topics:

  • Boundaries of local practice area
  • Solo dispatch criteria; limitations placed in student's logbook

Review:

  • Airworthiness criteria
  • Human factors checklist
  • Preflight procedures
  • Runway incursion avoidance
  • Wake turbulence avoidance
  • Collision avoidance
  • Normal and crosswind takeoff and climb
  • Maneuvering during slow flight
  • Power-off stall and recovery
  • Power-on stall and recovery
  • Systems and equipment malfunctions
  • En route emergency procedures
  • Emergency approach and landing
  • Traffic patterns
  • Normal and crosswind approach and landings
  • Go-around
  • Postflight procedures
  • Forward slips
  • Flight by reference to instruments

Completion standards:

  • Instructor determines if student is able to competently conduct solo flights in the practice area
  • Altitude within 150 feet, airspeed within 10 knots, heading within 15 degrees
  • Demonstrate ability to depart airport, find local practice area, and return to airport with no instructor assistance

Suggested student homework assignments:

Review POH

Research in AIM any flight operations questions that arose during solo.

Lesson 12: Solo Practice

Dual—ground: 0.5 Solo—1.0

Objective:

To review flight maneuvers and allow student to feel comfortable when soloing the airplane.

Discussion topics:

  • Dispatch procedures
  • Weight and balance computations
  • Performance computations
  • Aeronautical decision making
  • PIC authority and responsibility

Review:

  • Normal and crosswind takeoff and climb
  • Radio communications
  • Traffic patterns
  • Maneuvering during slow flight
  • Steep turns
  • Power-off stall and recovery
  • Ground reference maneuvers
  • Normal and crosswind approach and landing

Completion standards:

  • Successful flight to and return from practice area (otherwise, he gets lost?)
  • Altitude, airspeed, heading within or approaching PTS standards

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read Chapter 5 and Chapter 8 passages on performance takeoffs and performance landings in the Airplane Flying Handbook.

Review POH procedures for short and soft-field operations.

Begin becoming familiar with the task's practical test requirements in the Practical Test Standards

Lesson 13: Performance Takeoffs and Landings

Dual—ground: 0.5, flight: 1.0

Objective:

Introduce student to varying runway conditions and develop skill during takeoff and landing.

Discussion topics:

  • Performance computation
  • Elements related to performance takeoffs and landings

Review:

  • Flight at slow airspeeds with realistic distractions
  • Recognition and recovery from low-level stalls forward slips

Introduce:

  • Short-field takeoff and climb
  • Soft-field takeoff and climb
  • Short-field approach and landing
  • Soft-field approach and landing
  • Completion standards:

    • Student understanding of the need to use performance takeoffs and landings
    • Student demonstration of the correct procedure to be used under simulated or actual conditions

    Suggested student homework assignments:

    Read the September 1996 AOPA Pilot magazine article Skill Sharpening: A Solo Syllabus

    Read the May 10,2002 Training Tips article in the AOPA ePilot Student Newsletter: Making the Most of Your Solo Flights

Lesson 14: Solo Practice

Dual—ground: 0.2
Solo—1.0

Objective:

To increase student proficiency with solo takeoffs and landings

Discussion topics:

  • Solo traffic pattern procedures

Review:

  • Radio communications
  • Taxiing
  • Before-takeoff check
  • Normal takeoff and climb
  • Traffic patterns
  • Normal approach and landing
  • After-landing procedures
  • Parking and securing

Completion standards:

  • Use of correct takeoff techniques. Rotation speed within 5 knots
  • Stabilized approach to landing. Final approach speed within 5 knots
  • Smooth landing within 300 feet of desired touchdown location
  • Judgment-executes go-around if necessary

Suggested student homework assignments:

Study Chapter 14 of the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.

Read the May 1997 AOPA Pilot article Navigation Necessities

Lesson 15: Navigation

Dual—ground: 0.5, flight: 1.5, simulated instrument: 0.5

Objective:

Introduction to use of aircraft's navigation systems

Discussion topics:

  • Use of VOR system to include identification and tracking VOR signals
  • Use of all available resources in the aircraft

Review:

  • Performance takeoffs and landings
  • Flight by reference to instruments

Introduce:

  • VOR orientation and tracking
  • ADF orientation and homing
  • GPS orientation and tracking
  • Emergency descents using radio aids or radar vectors
  • Use of airplane navigation systems in emergency situations

Completion standards:

  • Demonstrate basic understanding of use of aircraft navigation systems

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read the November 7, 2003, Training Tips article in the AOPA ePilot Student Newsletter: Checking that Checkpoint.

Study cruise performance and fuel consumption calculations as given in the performance charts in your Pilot's Operating Handbook.

Review airspace in Chapter 3 of the Aeronautical Information Manual.

Lesson 16: Introduction to Cross-Country Flight

Dual—ground: 1.0, flight: 2.0, simulated instrument: 0.5

Objective:

Introduction to cross-country flying procedures to include flight planning, pilotage, and dead reckoning; diversion to an alternate airport; and lost procedures

Discussion topics:

  • Use of flight publications
  • Route selection and flight planning
  • Airspace rules
  • Weather information
  • Fuel requirements
  • Performance limitations
  • Navigation log
  • Opening and closing flight plans
  • Weight and balance computation
  • Cockpit management
  • Aeronautical decision making

Review:

  • VOR orientation and tracking
  • ADF orientation and homing
  • GPS orientation and tracking
  • Emergency procedures
  • Flight by reference to instruments

Introduce:

  • Setting cruise power and fuel mixture
  • Estimating in-flight visibility
  • Computing groundspeed, ETA, and fuel consumption
  • Obtaining in-flight weather information
  • Operations at unfamiliar airports
  • Position fix by navigation facilities
  • Use of Approach Control and Departure Control

Completion standards:

  • Demonstrate the skill to control the aircraft during a cross-country flight and make necessary corrections to ensure proper course
  • Arrive at ETA within 3 minutes (recalculating groundspeed based on changed winds, if necessary)

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read "Flying's Forgotten 5 Percent," an article on night flying from the September 2004 AOPA Flight Training available online.

Review ASF Safety Hot Spot: Flying Night VFR.

Lesson 17: Introduction to Night Flight

Dual—ground: 1.0, flight: 1.0

Objective:

Introduce the student to the basics of and preparations for flying at night.

Discussion topics:

  • Preparation techniques for night flying
  • Visual illusions
  • Night scanning techniques and collision avoidance
  • Night flying regulations
  • Airport lighting

Introduce (night flight):

  • Normal and crosswind takeoff and climb
  • Power-off stalls and recovery
  • Power-on stalls and recovery
  • Steep turns
  • Maneuvering during slow flight
  • VFR navigation
  • Normal and crosswind approach and landing
  • Emergency procedures

Completion standards:

  • Complete five takeoffs and landings at night under varying conditions (landing light off, runway lights off)
  • Demonstration of ability to return to airport using all available resources
  • Altitude within 150 feet, airspeed within 10 knots, heading within 10 degrees

Suggested student homework assignments:

Read the January 2001 AOPA Pilot article Into the Heart of Darkness.

Familiarization with the night flying requirements for private pilots in the Federal Aviation Regulations.

Lesson 18: Night Cross-Country

Dual—ground: 1.0, flight: 2.0, simulated instrument: 0.5

Objective:

Introduce student to basics of navigation at night, and help to prepare the student for solo cross-country flight.

Discussion topics:

  • Sectional charts
  • Flight publications
  • Route selection and basic navigation procedures
  • Weather information
  • Fuel and performance requirements
  • Weight and balance
  • Navigation log
  • FAA flight plan
  • Cockpit management
  • Aeronautical decision making
  • Aeromedical factors
  • Night VFR fuel requirements

Review:

  • Emergency operations
  • Lost procedures
  • Night operations

Completion standards:

  • Demonstrate ability to safely perform a cross-country flight as the sole occupant of the airplane
  • Demonstrate complete flight planning skills
  • Altitude within 100 feet, airspeed within 10 knots, heading within 10 degrees
  • Suggested student homework assignments:

    Read the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's Safety Advisor: Do the Right Thing: Decision Making for Pilots.

    Read the January 27, 2006 AOPA ePilot Student Newsletter's Training Tips article "Solo Limitations."

    Practice obtaining weather briefings and making go/no-go decisions based on the information provided.

Lesson 19: Solo Cross-Country

Dual—ground: 0.5
Solo—2.5

Objective:

Use of previously gained knowledge to complete a solo cross-country flight.

Discussion topics:

  • Solo cross-country briefing
  • Required documents and endorsements
  • Determining performance and weight and balance
  • Basic VFR weather minimums
  • Airspace rules
  • En route communications
  • ATC services
  • En route weather information
  • Lost procedures
  • Emergency operations
  • Diversions
  • ATC light signals
  • Aeronautical decision making
  • Cockpit management
  • Review:

  • Computing groundspeed, ETA, and fuel requirements
  • Use of dead reckoning
  • VOR interception and tracking
  • Use of navigation log
  • Filing and opening and closing FAA flight plan
  • Completion standards:

  • Demonstrate accurate planning and conduct of a solo cross-country flight using the three common methods of navigation
  • Suggested student homework assignments:

    Read Chapter 12, Airport Operations, of the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.

    Read the June 28, 2002 AOPA ePilot Student Newsletter's Training Tips article Unplanned Diversions.

    Review the source materials for which links are given in the article listed above.

    Lesson 20: Long-Distance Solo Cross-Country

    Dual—ground: 0.5 Solo—3.0

    Objective:

    Further develop solo cross-country flying skills

    Discussion topics:

    • Solo cross-country briefing
    • Required documents and endorsements
    • Determining performance and weight and balance
    • Basic VFR weather minimums
    • Airspace rules
    • En route communications
    • ATC services
    • En route weather information
    • Lost procedures
    • Emergency operations
    • Diversions
    • Aeronautical decision making

    Review:

    • Computing groundspeed, ETA, and fuel requirements
    • Use of dead-reckoning
    • VOR interception and tracking
    • Use of navigation log
    • Filing and opening and closing FAA flight plan

    Completion standards:

    1. Successful flight in accordance with FAR 61.109(a)(5)(ii)
    Suggested student homework assignments:

    Review Practical Test Standards and be sure that maneuvers will be practiced to tolerances equal to or exceeding the requirements, and to become familiar with the flight-testing process.

    Use the valuable resources of the AOPA Flight Training Web site's Flight Test Prep page to answer frequently asked questions and sharpen your knowledge.

    Lesson 21: Practical Test Preparation

    Dual—ground: 0.3, flight: 1.5, simulated instrument: 0.5

    Objective:

    Determine proficiency level

    Discussion topics:

    • Applicable performance criteria
    • Applicable rules

    Review:

    • Minimum equipment list
    • Cross-country flight planning
    • Airplane logbook entries
    • Preflight inspection
    • Cockpit management
    • Engine starting
    • Radio communications
    • Airport and runway markings and lighting
    • Normal and crosswind taxiing
    • Before-takeoff check
    • Short-field takeoff and climb
    • Soft-field takeoff and climb
    • Navigation procedures
    • Diversion procedures
    • Steep turns
    • Maneuvering during slow flight
    • Stalls and recovery
    • Emergency procedures
    • Flight by reference to instruments
    • Pilot in command authority and responsibility
    • Cockpit resource management
    • Aeronautical decision making
    • Traffic patterns
    • Short-field approach and landing
    • Soft-field approach and landing
    • Forward slip to landing
    • Go-around
    • After-landing procedures
    • Post-flight procedures

    Completion standards:

    • Demonstrates mastery of designated maneuvers and knowledge items
    • Altitude, heading, and airspeed meet or exceed PTS standards

    Suggested student homework assignments:

    Verify that aeronautical experience requirements in the federal aviation regulations have been, or will be, met for the desired pilot certificate at the end of the training program.

    Review operating speeds for your aircraft, systems information and emergency procedures in the Pilot's Operating handbook.

    Lesson 22: Solo Practical Test Preparation

    Dual—ground: 0.2
    Solo—2.5

    Objective: Further development of flight skills through individual practice Discussion topics:
    • Maneuvers and procedures in preparation for practical test

    Review:

    • Short-field takeoffs and landings
    • Soft-field takeoffs and landings
    • Steep turns
    • Maneuvering during slow flight
    • Stalls and recovery
    • Forward slip to landing
    • Radio communications
    • Ground reference maneuvers

    Completion standards:

    • Ability to perform required maneuvers to standards higher than the PTS