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| Training Tips |
| STEEP TURNS |
The steep turn occupies a unique position in the private pilot flight curriculum. It is the only task in Area of Operation V of the Practical Test Standards and the only so-called "performance maneuver" on the private pilot flight test.
The steep turn is a dynamic, educational maneuver and exhilarating to perform with exactitude. Flown to PTS specifications, it is a level-altitude 360-degree turn in each direction, using a bank angle of 45 degrees (plus/minus five degrees). It is flown at the manufacturer's recommended airspeed, or a safe airspeed not above maneuvering speed (Va; review the definition) because of the increased load factor imposed on the aircraft. Maintain altitude within 100 feet (at least 1,500 feet above ground level). Roll out within 10 degrees of the initial heading.
First clear the area for opposing traffic. Then roll into the turn using aileron and, as in any turn, sufficient rudder to counteract the yaw created by aileron drag. As you pass approximately 30 degrees of bank, raise the nose to maintain altitude. Remember that lift is being employed both to turn the airplane and maintain altitude–so to accomplish both, you must fly at a higher angle of attack than in straight-and-level flight. After bank angle is established and the turn is progressing, continue holding control pressure in all three axes. Back pressure will be needed to maintain the required pitch attitude. Aileron pressure may have to be held opposite the direction of the turn to counteract any overbanking tendency. Therefore, opposite rudder pressure may be needed to neutralize yaw created by the deflected aileron's drag. (If you are in a steep turn to the left, you may need some right aileron pressure to prevent overbanking, and left rudder to coordinate.)
On rollout, lower the nose as you decrease bank. Failing to do so will result in a sudden altitude gain. For a discussion of the steep turn, see the March 2001 AOPA Flight Training article " G-force Glory." For a flight instructor's assessment of the maneuver's value during initial and recurrent training, check out the 1992 AOPA Pilot feature " Maneuvers." Remember that the steep turn is an "eyes outside the airplane" maneuver. Click here to review tips on how to fly it that way.
If you do steep turns properly while flying in calm air, perhaps on a still morning before the sun's heating has a chance to stir up any turbulence, you should be able to feel the slight burble of your own aircraft's wake turbulence as you complete a circle. Look for that sensation and enjoy the knowledge that you're mastering another important maneuver.
| Your Partner in Training |
|AOPA Online offers a wealth of good reading for new and student pilots. From "Finding the Field" to "First Solo, Nearly Last," you'll learn from the experiences of others before you. Go to AOPA Online to access a variety of articles especially for you. If you need more information, call our experienced pilots–available toll-free on weekdays between 8:30 a.m. and 6 p.m. Eastern to answer your questions at 800/872-2672. |
As an AOPA Flight Training Trial Member, you have access to all of the features within AOPA Online. For login information click here.
| Flight Training News |
| FEDS DELAY PHASE-OUT OF LAND-BASED NAVAIDS |
Thought you wouldn't have to learn how to use the VOR receiver or automatic direction finder (ADF) installed in your training airplane? Transportation and Defense department officials said Tuesday that the government has once again delayed plans to make the global positioning system (GPS) the primary means of U.S. navigation for fear of blocking and jamming. The 2001 Federal Radionavigation Plan effectively extends the life of land-based radio navaids such as VORs and NDBs. The phase-out is slated to begin in 2010, two years later than expected, and depends on program progress and the rate of user equipment upgrades.
AOPA TAKES ISSUE WITH NUCLEAR PLANT REPORT
AOPA is taking exception to a report issued Monday by Massachusetts Rep. Edward Markey claiming that there are gaps in nuclear reactor security. Among the claims in the report is a statement that "96 percent of all U.S. reactors were designed without regard for the potential for impact from even a small aircraft." Markey also wants all nuclear sites ringed with antiaircraft weapons. "The report misleads the public by telling only part of the story," said AOPA President Phil Boyer. "Reactor containment vessels are so massive that a GA aircraft can't penetrate them. Period." All nuclear reactor containment buildings are built like bunkers with at least 12 feet of solid steel and reinforced concrete between the reactor and the outside world. Containment vessels weigh more than 500 tons. A GA aircraft, constructed primarily of lightweight aluminum, would crumple upon hitting such a massive object. See AOPA Online.
FLORIDA COLLEGE ADOPTS RADIO TRAINING AID
The aeronautical science program at Miami-Dade Community College in Florida will integrate "Comm1 Radio Simulator" and other aviation communication training software from Comm1 into its private, instrument, and commercial flight curriculums. "We have a lot of air traffic in and out of Tamiami [Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport] and our students need to be up to speed with their radio work," said Jorge Pita, manager of aviation at the college's airport facility. For more information on Comm1 products, visit the Web site.
| Inside AOPA |
| GA RELIEF NOT FORGOTTEN BY CONGRESS |
A Senate bill that would provide disaster loans and loan guarantees for small businesses affected by the September 11 terrorist attacks passed the Senate on Friday by a voice vote. Small Business Committee Chairman John Kerry (D-Mass.) and ranking Republican Christopher Bond (Mo.) negotiated with the White House to clear the way for the president's signature on the AOPA-backed bill, the American Small Business Emergency Relief and Recovery Act of 2001 (S. 1499). The legislation will have to pass the House, which is expected to take up the measure after the congressional spring recess, before it becomes law. While the legislation is not GA-specific, the bill would provide disaster loans to GA small businesses affected by the airspace shutdown. Other AOPA-backed small business relief packages (H.R. 3347/S. 2007), sponsored respectively by Rep. John Mica (R-Fla.) and Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Oka.), include grants for more comprehensive GA relief. See AOPA Online.
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| Training Products |
| FIND INSPIRATION IN AVIATION POETRY |
When you're knee-deep in FAA questions preparing for an exam, it's easy to lose sight of why you decided to become a pilot. Take a break with Helmut Reda's compilation of aviation poetry. Because I Fly: A Collection of Aviation Poetry retails for $16.95 (hardcover) and has 232 pages, with 15 illustrations. Available at national book retailers. For more, see the Web site.
| Final Exam |
| Question: During my training, I'm flying a couple of different aircraft. Each of them has different navigational equipment on board. Where do I find the aircraft equipment suffixes that I need when filing a flight plan? |
Answer: Equipment suffixes identify an aircraft's equipment capability and are listed in Section 5-1-7, "Flight Plan–IFR Flights," of the Aeronautical Information Manual. The AIM recommends that pilots file the maximum transponder or navigation capability of their aircraft in the equipment suffix, so that ATC can utilize all available capabilities. As a student, however, you should exercise caution and file the maximum navigation capability that you are able use. In other words, if you cannot navigate via GPS, do not use that suffix–or ATC may ask you to use equipment that you have not yet learned or are not capable of using.
Got a technical question for AOPA specialists? E-mail to [email protected] or call 800/872-2672.
| Picture Perfect |
|Did you know you can create a personal e-card using the images from the AOPA Online Gallery? Send one to a friend today. See AOPAï¿½Online. |
| What's New At AOPA Online |
|How familiar are you with airport lighting systems? Take the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's quick quiz to test your knowledge. See AOPA Online. |
| ePilot Calendar |
| Check your weekend weather on AOPA Online. |
WEEKEND FLYING DESTINATIONS
Washington, D.C. The National Cherry Blossom Festival takes place March 24 through April 7. See our nation's capital in its springtime glory as more than 6,000 trees blossom. Be sure to check notams before flying in this area, and remember that Ronald Reagan National, College Park, Hyde, and Potomac airports are closed to transient general aviation traffic. For more information, visit the Web site.
Kissimmee, Florida. B-25 Mitchell warbird reunion takes place April 4 through 6 at the Flying Tigers Warbird Air Museum on Kissimmee Municipal Airport (ISM). Contact the museum, 407/933/1942, or e-mail.
Snowmass Village, Colorado. Snowmass Banana Season takes place April 5 through 8–go bananas for spring skiing! Visit the Web site for more information.
For more airport details, see AOPA's Airport Directory Online . For more events, see Aviation Calendar of Events
ASF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS
(All clinics start at 7:30 a.m.)
The next AOPA Air Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics are scheduled in San Diego, Chicago, and Indianapolis, April 6 and 7. Clinics are scheduled in Atlanta and Boston, April 13 and 14. For the Flight Instructor Refresher Clinic schedule, see AOPA Online.
ASF PINCH-HITTER GROUND-SCHOOL COURSES
(Pinch-Hitter courses start at 9:30 a.m.)
The next Pinch-Hitterï¿½ Ground School will take place in Frederick, Maryland, on April 13. For more Pinch-Hitter courses, see AOPA Online.
ASF SAFETY SEMINARS
AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Seminars are scheduled in Glenview, Illinois, April 8; Rockford, Illinois, April 9; Peoria, Illinois, April 10; and South Holland, Illinois, April 10. The topic is spatial disorientation. The following Safety Seminars will take place during Sun 'n Fun EAA Fly-in in Lakeland, Florida: Operation Airspace '02 and Spatial Disorientation, April 7; Operation Airspace '02 and Fuel Awareness, April 8; Spatial Disorientation and GPS for VFR, April 9; Collision Avoidance and Single Pilot IFR, April 10. For more information, visit the Web site.
For comments on calendar items or to make submissions, contact [email protected].