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Copyright ï¿½ 2002 AOPA.
| Training Tips |
| TESTING SPEED CONTROL |
What is the correct speed for performing a maneuver on the FAA's private pilot practical test? It depends on the kind of maneuver. Some tasks are performed at or within a few knots of a designated airspeed. One such task is the normal takeoff. The Practical Test Standards ( click here to download) require that you lift off at the "recommended airspeed"–that is, the speed given in the Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH) for your airplane. Then you accelerate to Vy (best rate of climb speed) while climbing to "a safe maneuvering altitude." You are allowed a tolerance of plus 10 or minus 5 knots.
During a steep turn, by contrast, you use the recommended airspeed, "or if one is not stated, a safe airspeed not to exceed Va" (design maneuvering speed; review aircraft operating speeds in AOPA's Handbook for Pilots ). When maneuvering during slow flight, there is no tolerance on the slow side because a stall would occur.
Remember as you study that you'll need to know when airspeeds are presented as indicated airspeeds–such as on checklists–or as true airspeeds, as on many performance charts. What are the various kinds of airspeed and why are they different? Your examiner may inquire. Consult Chapter 6 of the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge ( click here to download). Some POHs give operating speeds only for the maximum-weight condition. What then? Here's a rule of thumb from AOPA's Handbook for Pilots: "To calculate speeds for lighter weights, decrease the speed by half the percentage of the weight decrease. For example, flying a 3,000-pound-gross airplane at 2,400 pounds, a 20-percent reduction in weight, reduce the applicable speeds by 10 percent to hold the margins the same as at gross."
Not all the speeds you'll need in flight appear on the color-coded rings around your airspeed indicator (ASI). These are "unlisted numbers" as discussed in the April 2002 AOPA Flight Training article bearing that title. Even without reference to an ASI, a skilled pilot can closely estimate the airspeed at which his or her craft is flying by gauging pitch attitude, control pressures, noise levels, etc. To learn more about flying by feel, see the February 15, 2002, edition of this newsletter. Then see how one pilot handled the loss of information from the ASI in the August 2002 AOPA Flight Training article, "Learning Experiences: Getting Hosed." Have all the above information at your fingertips, and you will make a great impression on your checkride!
| Your Partner in Training |
|While hurricane season officially descended on the Atlantic on June 1, most of the worst storms in U.S. history have struck in the fall--bringing heavy rain, thunderstorms, and often tornados. With that in mind, there's no better time to take the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's safety quiz on weather, available on AOPA Online. While you're at it, register to win a prize! |
As an AOPA Flight Training Member, you have access to all of the features within AOPA Online. For login information click here.
| Flight Training News |
| RESTRICTIONS INCREASE, DESPITE LOWER THREAT LEVEL |
Despite a reduced terrorist threat level, the FAA this week issued a temporary flight restriction (TFR) that affects flying within a 30-nautical-mile radius around Kennebunkport, Maine, October 4 through 6, while President Bush visits the family compound. The TFR closes two airports and severely restrictions operations–including prohibitions on flight training and practice instrument approaches–at 14 others. "AOPA finds this new trend toward larger flight restrictions extremely disturbing," said Melissa Bailey, AOPA vice president of air traffic policy. "Even though the terrorist threat level has dropped from 'orange' to 'yellow,' we seem to be moving backwards instead of forward in the area of airspace restrictions." AOPA contacted the FAA and TSA to object to this latest airspace restriction and will continue to work with all federal agencies to reduce the number and size of future flight restrictions.
COUNTY ATTEMPS STUDENT BACKGROUND CHECKS
AOPA has warned the board of supervisors in San Mateo County, California, that the association is prepared to fight a new county ordinance requiring prospective student pilots to undergo a police identity check conducted by the local sheriff. In a letter to board President Jerry Hill, AOPA Vice President for Airports Anne Esposito said AOPA has already gone to federal court to stop a very similar Michigan state law, claiming it unconstitutionally usurps federal authority. "Now, in San Mateo County, we have a local sheriff deciding who is and is not a fit candidate for flight training," said Esposito. "It is important to stop this kind of knee-jerk reactionary lawmaking and to recognize the longstanding federal laws and regulations already in place." In the Michigan case, the judge plans a late-October hearing to consider AOPA's call for a preliminary injunction preventing the state from enforcing its police identity check law until after the constitutionality of the law is determined.
STUDY CITES NEED FOR INCREASED AVIATION CAPACITY
A new economic study released last week quantifies the tremendous impact of civil aviation on the U.S. economy. The study, released by DRI-WEFA, found that civil aviation contributed more than $900 billion and 11 million jobs to the nation's economy in 2000. Of those figures, general aviation represented a significant portion, adding in excess of $100 billion and 1.3 million jobs to the U.S. economy. "General aviation is a critical link in our nation's air transportation system. This study certainly confirms that point," said Ed Bolen, president and CEO of the General Aviation Manufacturers Association. "Given the clear relationship between aviation and the economy, it is imperative that we invest in the future." A copy of the DRI-WEFA study is available online.
| Inside AOPA |
| NEW NOTAM INCLUDES AOPA RECOMMENDATIONS |
Eliminating more than a year's uncertainty for general aviation pilots, the FAA has issued a new notam that significantly revising the infamous "Catch-22" notam 1/3353 governing flight restrictions near large open-air events. AOPA objected to the previous notam because it did not define covered events, hours of the event, or properly address operations at airports within the temporary flight restriction (TFR) airspace. The new notam adopts almost every AOPA recommendation, including limiting the airspace restrictions to major league baseball, NFL, and NCAA Division IA stadiums, and major speedways, seating more than 30,000 people. It limits the effective time of the restrictions from one hour before the scheduled start time of the event to one hour after and provides for arrivals and departures at airports within TFR airspace. The TFR dimensions remain unchanged and prohibit operations within 3 nautical miles and 3,000 feet. "TSA led the development of this notam to address specific issues related to security," said AOPA Senior Vice President Andy Cebula. "With the FAA's release of this notam, there is no reason for Congress to act on legislation currently being considered in the Senate and the House on sporting event overflights."
FAA DENIES MEDICAL PETITION, BUT LEAVES DOOR OPEN
The FAA recently denied AOPA's petition to allow certificated pilots to use a driver's license as a medical certificate provided those pilots limit themselves to recreational pilot privileges. (All pilots, including student pilots, must possess a current airman medical certificate before operating an aircraft solo.) But the FAA hasn't closed the door on the idea. "We met with top FAA officials this week, and they made it clear the idea was not rejected on its merits," said Andrew V. Cebula, AOPA senior vice president of Government and Technical Affairs. "While we didn't like it, they said they had too many other rulemaking projects right now for them to consider this specific petition." The use of a driver's license in lieu of a medical certificate is currently being considered for the Sport Pilot certificate--a proposed new type of pilot certificate, requiring less training than a private pilot certificate but limiting operations and the aircraft that may be flown, that currently is undergoing regulatory review. The FAA said it wanted to evaluate the operations of sport pilots using a valid driver's license in lieu of a medical before it extended the option to recreational pilot privileges.
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| Training Products |
| AOPA CALENDAR DEPICTS GA AIRCRAFT |
The 2003 AOPA Calendar, featuring spectacular photography of a different GA aircraft each month and ideal for use at home or at the office, is now available from Sporty's Pilot Shop. The calendar costs $14.95; two or more copies cost $9.95 each. To order, visit the Web site or call 800/SPORTYS.
| Final Exam |
| Question: I don't fly into many airports with a segmented circle, so I'm not very familiar with them. Would you explain them? |
Answer: A segmented circle is type of visual indicator designed to provide traffic pattern information at an airport. They can provide information on traffic patterns and wind or landing direction. The segmented circle itself is located in a central position on the airport, providing maximum visibility to pilots in the air. A wind cone, sock, or tee is normally found within the circle and provides the pilot with information on wind direction or landing direction. You will also find landing strip indicators and traffic pattern indicators. The landing strip indicators are aligned with the airport's runways. Attached to the end are traffic pattern indicators that indicate the direction of turns when there is a variation from the normal left traffic pattern. A full explanation of the segmented circle, as well as other visual indicators, can be found in Section 4-3-3 of the Aeronautical Information Manual or " Which Way Is the Wind Blowing?" from AOPA Flight Training magazine.
Got a technical question for AOPA specialists? E-mail to [email protected] or call 800/872-2672.
| Picture Perfect |
Jump to the AOPA Online Gallery to see the featured airplane of the day. Click on the link for details on how to capture wallpaper for your work area. See AOPA Online.
| What's New At AOPA Online |
| AOPA OFFERS NEW AIRCRAFT PURCHASE TOOLS |
Following the example of TurboMedical®, AOPA's first interactive online form, members preparing to buy or sell an aircraft can now complete a handy interactive bill of sale form or aircraft registration application on AOPA Online. The forms pull data from FAA aircraft registration records to speed completion and share information among themselves as well; for example, upon finishing an interactive bill of sale, if the user chooses to complete an aircraft registration application, that form will automatically reflect data typed into the interactive bill of sale.
| Weekend Weather |
|See the current weather on AOPAï¿½Online, provided by Meteorlogix. |
| ePilot Calendar |
| WEEKEND FLYING DESTINATIONS |
Fort Worth, Texas. International Airshow 2002 takes place October 12 and 13 at Alliance Airport (AFW), featuring the Air Force Thunderbirds. For more information call 817/491-1092, or visit the Web site.
New Bern, North Carolina. MUMfest 2002 Air Expo takes place October 12 at Craven County Regional Airport (EWN). "The Sound Of Freedom–A Tribute To Our Military" features a day-long extravaganza of aerial activity and static display of most of our military's current inventory. Contact Susan Moffat-Thomas, 252/638-5781, or visit the Web site.
For more airport details, see AOPA's Airport Directory Online . For more events, see Aviation Calendar of Events.
ASF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS
(All clinics start at 7:30 a.m.)
The next AOPA Air Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics are scheduled in San Jose, California; Indianapolis; and Wichita, Kansas, on October 12 and 13. Clinics are also scheduled in Ontario, California, and Nashville, Tennessee, on October 19 and 20. For the Flight Instructor Refresher Clinic schedule, see AOPA Online.
ASF PINCH-HITTER GROUND-SCHOOL COURSES
(Pinch-Hitter courses start at 9:30 a.m.)
The next Pinch-Hitterï¿½ Ground School will take place in San Jose, California, October 13. For more Pinch-Hitter courses, see AOPA Online.
ASF SAFETY SEMINARS
AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Seminars are scheduled in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and Manassas, Virginia, October 7; North Glenn, Colorado; Naples, Florida; and Sandston, Virginia, October 8; Colorado Springs, Colorado, St. Petersburg, Florida; and Newport News, Virginia, October 9; and Sarasota, Florida, and Wise, Virginia, October 10. Topics vary, check AOPAï¿½Online for the complete schedule and topic listing.
To make submissions to the calendar, visit AOPA Online. For comments on calendar items, e-mail [email protected].