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Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
421 Aviation Way
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Tel: 800/USA-AOPA or
Copyright © 2003 AOPA.
| Training Tips |
| FROSTY THE NO-GO MAN |
How will frost on the wings of an airplane affect takeoff performance? If the words have a familiar ring, it may be because this question is raised frequently in training texts and pilot's operating handbooks, and by your instructor during cold-weather preflight inspections. Indeed, the above question is taken verbatim from the FAA Private Pilot Knowledge Test. The answer is that frost "will disrupt the smooth flow of air over the wing, adversely affecting its lifting capability." This understates the fact that a frost-laden airfoil-or even just a frost-dusted one-may not provide any lift at all. Or, that lift may be disturbed so suddenly and unevenly that the pilot is taken by surprise by a sudden "departure" of the aircraft into a stall or spin.
Thus the warnings about frost are augmented by Federal Aviation Regulation 91.527 which requires that no pilot may take off an airplane that has-
(1) Frost, snow, or ice adhering to any propeller, windshield, or powerplant installation or to an airspeed, altimeter, rate of climb, or flight attitude instrument system;
(2) Snow or ice adhering to the wings or stabilizing or control surfaces; or
(3) Any frost adhering to the wings or stabilizing or control surfaces, unless that frost has been polished to make it smooth.
Numerous accidents have been attributed to pilots underestimating the effects of small frost accumulations. (See the "Accident Analysis" column in the December 2000 AOPA Flight Training). Author Jack Williams provides a vivid illustration of the risks in the November 2002 AOPA Flight Training article, "Dangers of Frozen Precipitation," noting that "researchers have found that as little as 0.8 millimeters of frost on a wing-a little more than a hundredth of an inch-can reduce lift by 25 percent as well as increase drag." ( Click here to read the article in its entirety.)
Know someone who flew with frost and encountered no difficulties? That merely testifies to the unpredictability of the stuff. An AOPA Air Safety Foundation article, "The Winds of Winter: When Flying is Worth the Effort," offers an example of how a pilot who thought he had frost figured out found out otherwise, while reminding readers that winter flying-when done right-can be one of aviation's true pleasures. ASF's Aircraft Icing Safety Advisor is an excellent source of information about frost and other frozen contaminants; click here to download a copy.
| Your Partner in Training |
|Getting ready to take your first medical? Log on to AOPA Online and get the essential information you should know. From FAA-accepted medications to medical subject reports, you'll find the resources to help you understand the application process. We even have a searchable listing of aviation medical examiners in the United States. And AOPA's TurboMedical® application will walk you through FAA Form 8500-8, cautioning you about potentially problematic answers. As a member, you also have access to medical certification specialists who deal with the FAA on a regular basis. You can reach them weekdays 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. Eastern by calling our Pilot Information Center at 800/USA-AOPA (800/872-2672). |
AOPA Flight Training members have access to all of the features within AOPA Online. For members' section login information click here.
| Flight Training News |
| ASF RUNWAY INCURSION INFO AVAILABLE ONLINE |
A PowerPoint presentation of the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's airport safety "flash cards," originally produced by ASF for the FAA Office of Runway Safety is available for download from AOPA Online. The free downloadable presentation can be used to help pilots understand the many airport signs and markings important in helping to prevent runway incursions. "This program is an excellent example of the federal government working closely with the private sector to solve a difficult problem," said ASF Executive Director Bruce Landsberg. "It provides yet another outstanding resource that pilots, instructors, and safety counselors can use to combat runway incursions." Other online resources to improve the safety of ground operations include ASF's Runway Safety course and Operations at Towered Airports Safety Advisor ( click here to download).
FLEET UPGRADED WITH TRAFFIC INFO SYSTEMS
Dowling College's School of Aviation has upgraded the avionics of its entire fleet of trainers with traffic information systems, the college announced. The fleet, which is less than a year old, now features Garmin GTX 330 Mode S transponders that allow instructors and students to see the relative location, direction of flight, and altitude of nearby aircraft-and whether they're climbing or descending. "This enhancement provides an enormous safety advantage, especially in the metropolitan New York airspace in which we operate," said Martin M. Holley, dean of the School of Aviation. "We are pleased to be the first school with a professional pilot program to install this powerful tool." Dowling College School of Aviation is located at Brookhaven Airport.
AVIATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM OFFERED
Holyoke Community College in Holyoke, Massachusetts, has added two-year associate degree programs in flight training and aviation management to its academic schedule. Both degrees are transferable to four-year institutions. The flight training program is offered through Paradise City Aviation at Northampton Airport in Northampton. For more information, see the college Web site, or the airport Web site.
| Inside AOPA |
| AOPA MEMBERSHIP TOPS 390,000 IN 2002 |
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, already the world's largest civil aviation organization, ended last year with 390,749 members-an increase of 12,179 in a single year. "Passing another 10,000-member milestone and achieving 390,749 provides a number that commands attention," AOPA President Phil Boyer said. "As the new 108th Congress convenes and the country faces many issues that could impact general aviation pilots, aircraft, and airports, we're pleased to represent the many pilots who trust us to protect their interests."
FINANCE YOUR DREAMS WITH AOPA, MBNA PROGRAM
AOPA and AOPA Certified partner MBNA America Bank, N.A., are now offering home equity loans that may be used, for example, to finance flight training expenses. Funds from the loan may be used for just about anything, including aircraft upgrades or sending a student to an aeronautical university. See AOPA Online or call 800-655-7620.
MEMBERS URGED TO 'TAKE 'EM FLYING'
AOPA's newest publication, Take 'em Flying! encourages pilots to share their love of flying by providing a first-hand flying experience to people unfamiliar with general aviation. Take 'em Flying! offers suggestions about who to invite for an orientation flight, how to contact potential guests, what to talk about, and how to conduct the flight. Obtain a free copy of the brochure by calling AOPA at 800-872-2672, e-mailing, or download a copy from AOPA Online.
Changing your mailing or e-mail addresses? Click here to update.
| Training Products |
| AOPA WALLET WITH RAMP PASS INSERT HOLDS ALL DOCUMENTS |
Now that the federal aviation regulations require all pilots to carry a photo ID when flying, a new wallet from Sporty's Pilot Shop makes it easy to keep your documents together. The AOPA Wallet can accommodate a pilot certificate, medical, and driver's license. A three-pocket insert can be removed easily to present to the FAA, security officers, or FBO personnel. The leather wallet features the gold AOPA wings logo on the inside and is available for $79.95. A Ramp Pass insert may be purchased separately for $24.95. For more information, see the Web site or call 800/SPORTYS.
| Final Exam |
| Question: I'm a CFI and worried about possible FAA enforcement actions that may be a result of instructor endorsements that I give. Is there a source of recommended FAA instructor endorsements? I'm particularly interested in the wording for student solo in Class B airspace. |
Answer: You can find the recommended instructor endorsements in Appendix A of Advisory Circular 61-65D, "Certification: Pilots and Flight and Ground Instructors." ( Click here to download a copy.) The specific wording that you are looking for is as follows: "I certify that (Name of Student) has received the required training of 14 CFR 61.95(a). I have determined he/she is proficient to conduct solo flight in (Name of Class B) airspace." Any applicable limitations or conditions, the date of the endorsement, the CFI's signature, and the CFI's certificate number and expiration date should follow the endorsement. For more information on enforcement actions resulting from CFI endorsements, see Kathy Yodice's "Legal Briefing: CFI Solo Endorsements" in the February AOPA Flight Training. In the event of an enforcement action, legal assistance may be available to AOPA members who are enrolled in the AOPA Legal Services Plan.
Got a technical question for AOPA specialists? E-mail to [email protected] or call 800/872-2672.
| Picture Perfect |
The AOPA Online Gallery allows you to download your favorite images to use for wallpaper, send a personalized e-card, and order high-quality prints to be shipped directly to your doorstep. Search the hundreds of fabulous images in our archives and select your favorites today! For more details, see AOPA Online.
| What's New At AOPA Online |
|The list of frequently asked questions about weather theory, answered by meteorologists from AOPA Online weather provider Meteorlogix, has been updated. Users of AOPA's Airport eDirectory for personal computer or personal digital assistant can download updated airport data files for select individual states, or the entire database, by clicking here. |
| Weekend Weather |
|See the current weather on AOPA Online, provided by Meteorlogix. |
| ePilot Calendar |
| WEEKEND FLYING DESTINATIONS |
Dayton, Ohio. The 2003 Soaring Society of America Annual Convention takes place January 23 through 25 at the Downtown Convention Center. This premier event draws pilots from all over the United States and Canada. Features a soaring exhibit hall, seminars, and many sailplanes. For more information, visit the Web site.
Dunnellon, Florida. A Yankee Air Force World War II Bomber Fly-in takes place January 23 through 26 at Dunnellon/Marion County Airport (X35). Enjoy the sights and sounds of WWII bombers and other historic military aircraft and equipment. For more information, visit the Web site.
To submit an event to the calendar, or search all events, visit AOPA Online. For airport details, see AOPA's Airport Directory Online . For comments on calendar items, contact [email protected].
ASF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS
(All clinics start at 7:30 a.m.)
The next AOPA Air Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics are scheduled in Long Beach, California, and Baltimore, January 25 and 26. Clinics are also scheduled in Melbourne, Florida; Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas; and Las Vegas, February 1 and 2. For the Flight Instructor Refresher Clinic schedule, see AOPA Online.
ASF PINCH-HITTER GROUND-SCHOOL COURSES
(Pinch-Hitter courses start at 9:30 a.m.)
The next Pinch-Hitter® Ground Schools will take place in Dallas/Fort Worth, on February 2, and Sacramento, California, February 9. For more Pinch-Hitter courses, see AOPA Online.
ASF SAFETY SEMINARS
AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Seminars are scheduled in Mesa, Arizona, and San Antonio, January 27; Tucson, Arizona, and Houston, January 28; Fort Worth, Texas, January 29; and Austin, Texas, and Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 30. The topic is "The Ups and Downs of Takeoffs and Landings." For the complete schedule, see AOPA Online.