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Copyright © 2003 AOPA.
| Training Tips |
| RIGHT-OF-WAY RULES |
Many pilots learn to fly at airports that are beehives of activity. Many kinds of aircraft may share your local airspace. If there is no control tower on the field, how should you coordinate your arrival, say, with a glider returning to the pattern? Which way should you turn during cruise flight if you observe another aircraft approaching you head-on?
Such questions are addressed by Section 91.113 of the federal aviation regulations, Right-of-Way Rules: Except Water Operations (those are found in Section 91.115). But right-of-way scenarios can be complex. Expect your understanding of them to be questioned on the Private Pilot Knowledge Test and the oral component of your private pilot practical test.
Basically, says the regulation, "A balloon has the right-of-way over any other category of aircraft; a glider has the right-of-way over an airship, airplane, or rotorcraft; and an airship has the right-of-way over an airplane or rotorcraft." However, an aircraft in distress has priority over any other. An aircraft towing another (such as a glider-tow airplane) has priority over other powered craft. If you must give way to another aircraft, be sure to "not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear." When approaching another aircraft head-on, alter course to the right. (At night, look for the green light on the right wing tip and the red one on the left wing tip.) If you are being overtaken, you have the right of way (but make your presence known!). Landing, the lower aircraft has the right of way "but it shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in front of another which is on final approach to land or to overtake that aircraft."
If you are receiving radar flight following en route, air traffic controllers can help to resolve conflicts by issuing safety alerts, as author Robert I. Snow explains in his November 2000 AOPA Flight Training feature article When ATC calls Traffic . Kathy Yodice's Legal Briefing column in that issue discusses blending right-of-way rules with recommended traffic-pattern procedures. "Obviously, these rules don't cover every possible traffic situation. In other circumstances, a pilot must exercise judgment consistent with the intent of these right-of-way rules," she notes in another treatment of the subject in the August 1999 AOPA Flight Training .
As usual in flying, knowledge and judgment pave the way!
| Your Partner in Training |
|Extra-careful preflight is required for night flying. Organizing the cockpit (which includes making sure you have flashlights and plenty of fresh batteries to power them), choosing checkpoints, pondering emergency situations-the challenges are greater, but so are the freedoms. The special skills of night flying can only be acquired and maintained by taking frequent night flights. If you missed the article on night flying in the October 2002 AOPA Flight Training, read it now. |
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| Flight Training News |
| AOPA PUSHES FOR REMOVAL OF LONGSTANDING TFRs |
With the major fighting in Iraq concluded and the terrorist threat level in the United States lowered, AOPA is once again pushing to have longstanding "temporary" flight restrictions (TFRs) lifted. While the New York Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) and the downtown Chicago TFR have been rescinded, flight restrictions still plague pilots in 13 states, from the state of Washington on the West Coast to Washington, D.C. in the East. In a letter to Adm. James Loy, the head of the Transportation Security Administration, AOPA President Phil Boyer said, "AOPA members are asking, 'Isn't it time for temporary restrictions to be lifted given the reduced threat level, ending of hostilities in Iraq, and phase-out of Operation Liberty Shield?'" AOPA recently conducted a review of the 16 national security TFRs that have been in place since shortly after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Every area has experienced a local impact on general aviation operations. For example, four security TFRs in Washington State's Puget Sound region have had a significant impact on three Victor airways as well as VFR arrivals and departures at three airports, and have led to the closure of a seaplane base. Similar impacts have been felt in Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, Hawaii, Texas, Colorado, Alabama, Utah, Missouri, and Georgia.
PA FLIGHT SCHOOL BUYS AST AVIONICS SIMULATOR
An avionics and emergency situations simulator will be installed at Flight Level Aviation, of Uniontown, Pennsylvania, according to Aviation Simulation Technology, Inc. The AST 3000 Advanced Avionics and Emergency Situations Trainer instructs pilots in the use of four GPS receivers-the Garmin 530, KLN 94, UPS XG 50, and Garmin 295. It also is to be equipped with more than 100 specific, event-triggered aircraft malfunctions-many of which were designed by Flight Level Aviation-to train pilots how to handle emergency scenarios or system malfunctions in a Cessna P210. For more information, see the AST Web site.
ERAU SUMMER ACADEMY OFFERS AVIATION, AEROSPACE FUN
The Summer Aviation Academy at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's Daytona Beach, Florida, campus will offer teenagers an opportunity to build a mock space station or learn to fly, ERAU said. The camps are held June 19 to August 16 and include Aerospace Summer Camp, Flight Exploration, and SunFlight for students age 12 to 18. Tuition ranges from $1,599 for the one-week Flight Exploration introduction to flying and flight training up to $7,499 for the eight-week SunFlight Instrument Camp, in which participants earn an instrument rating and four college credits. Applications are due June 1. For more information, visit the Web site.
| Inside AOPA |
| ANNUAL FLY-IN EXPECTED TO ATTRACT THOUSANDS |
On June 7, general aviation will have a chance to shine at the thirteenth annual AOPA Fly-In and Open House at Frederick (Maryland) Municipal Airport. Hundreds of aircraft and thousands of visitors are expected at what has become the largest one-day event of its kind in the nation. "The AOPA Fly-In is an opportunity for our members to meet with association staff members face-to-face, one-on-one, and discuss the issues that are uppermost on their minds," said AOPA President Phil Boyer. "For anyone who loves aviation, whether you're a pilot or not, the Fly-In's a great chance to enjoy the company of other enthusiasts." Events include a daylong schedule of aviation seminars-including two presentations by AOPA Flight Training columnist Rod Machado-and a static aircraft display, which will include AOPA's Centennial of Flight Sweepstakes Waco UPF-7. Special arrival procedures for the fly-in are on the Web site; student pilots interested in flying in should ask their instructor to accompany them. The FAA operates a temporary control tower at FDK to handle all the extra traffic; during last year's event, only the tower at Atlanta's Hartsfield Airport handled more operations than the controllers at FDK.
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| Training Products |
| 'THE ADVANCED PILOT'S FLIGHT MANUAL' UPDATED |
The seventh edition of William K. Kershner's The Advanced Pilot's Flight Manual, updated to include a closer look at the basics of flight instruments and navigation, is now available from Iowa State Press. The book's aim is to teach pilots the principles of performance so that they can readily understand the effects of altitude, temperature, and other variables of airplane operation. Some math is included to help the aspiring professional pilot better understand the basics of airplane performance and other issues that affect the operation of a particular airplane. Kershner is the author of numerous aviation texts, including The Student Pilot's Flight Manual and The Flight Instructor's Manual. The 344-page softcover book sells for $39.99. For more information or to order, see the Web site.
| Final Exam |
| Question: On a sectional aeronautical chart, what does the "3" mean after the letters AWOS in the information given about an airport? It is not explained on the chart legend. |
Answer: AWOS (Automated Weather Observing System) installations are classified into four basic levels. "AWOS-A" only reports altimeter settings. "AWOS-1" usually reports altimeter setting, wind data, temperature, dew point, and density altitude. "AWOS-2" provides the same information as AWOS-1 plus visibility. The designation "AWOS-3" shows that this particular AWOS provides the same information as an AWOS-2 plus cloud and ceiling data. For more information on automated observing systems, you may be interested in downloading the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's ASOS; Automated Surface Observing System Safety Advisor or reading Automatic Weather from the October 1998 issue of Flight Training magazine.
Got a technical question for AOPA specialists? E-mail to [email protected] or call 800/872-2672. Don't forget the archive of questions and answers from AOPA's ePilot and ePilot Flight Training. FAQs are searchable by keyword or topic.
| Picture Perfect |
Looking for a unique gift for Father's Day? Order high-quality prints from the AOPA Online Gallery. Search the hundreds of fabulous images, select your favorite, and with just a few keystrokes, a beautiful print will be shipped directly to your doorstep! Orders must be placed by May 30 for guaranteed delivery. Of course, you can still download your favorite images to use for wallpaper or send a personalized e-card. For more details, see AOPA Online.
| What's New At AOPA Online |
| Safety Pilot, a monthly column written by the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's executive director for "AOPA Pilot" magazine, addresses a wide variety of GA safety topics. The Safety Pilot online article archive has been updated-visit this useful resource soon. |
| Weekend Weather |
|See the current weather on AOPA Online, provided by Meteorlogix. |
| ePilot Calendar |
| WEEKEND FLYING DESTINATIONS |
Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. The AOPA Wright Brothers Memorial Pilot Facility Grand Opening Fly-in takes place May 10 at the Wright Brothers National Memorial. Parking is very limited at First Flight Airport (FFA)-pilots are requested to land at Dare County Regional Airport (MQI). Free bus service will be provided to the event starting at 7 a.m.; ceremony begins at 12:30 p.m. For more information, visit AOPA Online.
To submit an event to the calendar, or search all events, visit AOPA Online. For airport details, see AOPA's Airport Directory Online . For comments on calendar items, contact [email protected].
ASF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS
(All clinics start at 7:30 a.m.)
The next AOPA Air Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics are scheduled in Sacramento, California; Albany, New York; and Houston; May 10 and 11. Clinics are also scheduled in Pensacola, Florida, and Baltimore, May 17 and 18. For a complete schedule, see AOPA Online. Can't make it in person? Sign up for the CFI Renewal Online.
ASF PINCH-HITTER GROUND-SCHOOL COURSES
(Pinch-Hitter courses start at 9:30 a.m.)
The next Pinch-Hitter® Ground School will take place in Columbus, Ohio, June 15. For more Pinch-Hitter courses, see AOPA Online.
ASF SAFETY SEMINARS
AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Seminars are scheduled in Scotia, New York, Dublin, Virginia, and New Bern, North Carolina, May 12; Fredericksburg, Virginia, North Syracuse, New York, and Fayetteville, North Carolina, May 13; Henrietta, New York, Danville, Virginia, and Jamestown, North Carolina, May 14; and Hendersonville, North Carolina, Melfa, Virginia, and Cheektowaga, New York, May 15. Topics vary; for complete details, see AOPA Online.