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| Training Tips |
| UNDERSTANDING EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE |
When you turn to the chapter on performance in your aircraft's pilot's operating handbook (POH) to look up expected cruise speed or fuel burn at various power settings, the figures you find are based on your having leaned the fuel-air mixture in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation. For many aircraft, the POH may give two leaning methods. One technique is to lean until peak rpm is achieved, and then enrich the mixture slightly so that a stated setting below peak rpm is established. A more precise method can be used in aircraft outfitted with an exhaust gas temperature gauge (EGT). Sooner or later most pilots will fly an EGT-equipped aircraft. You can familiarize yourself with EGT and leaning techniques in the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's Fuel Awareness Safety Advisor ( click here to download it from AOPA Online).
Why is an EGT a good measure of power? "As you lean the mixture from the full-rich position, the exhaust gas temperature increases–the exhaust gases get hotter–up to a point, after which they begin to cool. The hottest temperature is called peak EGT. In general, you strive to achieve a fuel-air mixture that produces an EGT 50 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than peak EGT on the rich side," explains Mark Twombly in "What it Looks Like: When an EGT Probe is Installed" in the November 2000 AOPA Flight Training.
Correct leaning provides best-power or best-economy fuel-air mixtures for your flight. Improper leaning can lead to spark-plug fouling if the mixture is too rich, or detonation or overheating if the mixture is too lean. See Chapter 5 of the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge ( click here to download) for a fuel-system operation review.
Leaning is a pretakeoff must for pilots flying from high-elevation airports. Those flying from near sea level should still lean above 3,000 feet, according to many manufacturers. And of course the mixture should be enriched during the descent, as discussed by David Montoya in the July 2000 AOPA Flight Training feature article "Above it All."
In flight, don't forget to monitor your engine instruments as explained in the August 2002 AOPA Flight Training feature "Red, Green or In Between: Understanding What Engine Gauges are Telling You." Let these simple techniques help you get optimum performance and, therefore, optimum safety from your aircraft on every flight.
| Your Partner in Training |
|The best way to avoid flying into airspace where you don't belong is to know about it before you take off. Know Before You Go is an interactive online course from the AOPA Air Safety Foundation that not only teaches about the challenges of security-related temporary flight restrictions, but also reviews everyday airspace issues as well. |
Do you have a question? Call our experienced pilots, available weekdays between 8:30 a.m. and 6 p.m. Eastern time toll-free at 800/872-2672. As an AOPA Flight Training Member, you have access to all of the features within AOPA Online. For login information click here.
| Flight Training News |
| FARMINGDALE STATE UNIVERSITY GOES FOR PIPER AIRCRAFT |
Farmingdale State University of New York has purchased $2.7 million worth of New Piper aircraft to replace the Diamond DA-20s in its aviation program's training fleet. The 13 aircraft–10 Warriors, two Arrows, and a Seminole–will join Farmingdale's Cessnas to bring the fleet to 20 aircraft. In acquiring Piper aircraft for training use, Farmingdale joins the ranks of such schools as Daniel Webster College, which purchased six aircraft in June, and the University of North Dakota, which announced in April that it was purchasing 10 aircraft. For more information on Farmingdale's aviation program, see the Web site.
FAA APPROVES ELITE 'ADVANCED' TRAINING SIMULATOR
The FAA has conferred "advanced" status on a flight simulator manufactured by Elite Simulation Solutions, the company announced. The iGATE Model G500 personal computer-based aviation training device (PCATD) has won approval for a new category of aviation training device called "advanced PCATD." The designator means that the iGATE Model G500 can be used not only for every phase of flight training, but also meets FAA requirements for recency of instrument experience. Enhancements include life-sized instruments, an external visual system, and improved ergonomics. For more information, see the Web site.
| Inside AOPA |
| AOPA OPPOSES PLAN FOR NEW MOA WITH 'LIGHTS-OUT' TRAINING |
The FAA should not grant a U.S. Air Force petition for a new military operations area (MOA) in Louisiana without modifications for safety and airspace reasons, AOPA said September 30. The Air Force wants to combine the Lady and Jones MOAs in north-central Louisiana into one area, known as the Hackett MOA. It also wants to be able to conduct lights-out night vision goggle training there. But the MOAs weren't on a list of lights-out operational areas that the Air Force had sought earlier this year, said Melissa Bailey, AOPA vice president of regulatory affairs. Lights-out operations–in which military aircraft don't use anticollision or position lights–deny aircraft transiting the area the ability to see and avoid them, she noted.
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| Training Products |
| 'ALPHATRAINER' ANGLE OF ATTACK TRAINING TOOL IN CD FORMAT |
Back in 1999 CFI Tom Shefchunas introduced the AlphaTrainer, a laminated airplane that graphically illustrates angle of attack and how it's affected by changes in an airplane's center of gravity and center of thrust, to help his colleagues teach this critical aspect of aerodynamics. Now Shefchunas has put the information on a CD that includes full text of the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (AC61-23C) and Airplane Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-3), plus teaching tips and other insights from his Web site, for easy referral. The price is $14.95 plus shipping. For more information or to order, see the Web site or call 877/542-1112.
| Final Exam |
| Question: Can you suggest a way to determine how far from the airport to start descending to pattern altitude when flying cross-country? |
Answer: A good suggestion is found in this article from AOPA Flight Training . Here's the formula the author suggests: Multiply the altitude you need to lose in thousands by four, and that's how many minutes it will take to descend at a passenger-pleasing 250 fpm. For example, if you are cruising at 9,500 feet msl and need to descend to 1,500 feet msl, you should begin your descent when 32 minutes from your target altitude waypoint (9.5 - 1.5 = 8 x 4 = 32). It works for any ground speed. Halving the multiplier to 2 cuts the time to 16 minutes and doubles the descent rate to 500 fpm, while a multiplier of 1 advances the descent rate to 1,000 fpm, regardless of ground speed.
Got a technical question for AOPA specialists? E-mail to [email protected] or call 800/872-2672. Don't forget the online archive of "Final Exam" questions and answers, searchable by keyword or topic.
| Picture Perfect |
The AOPA Online Gallery allows you to download your favorite images to use for wallpaper, send a personalized e-card, and order high-quality prints to be shipped directly to your doorstep. Search the hundreds of fabulous images in our archives and select your favorites today! For more details, see AOPA Online.
| What's New At AOPA Online |
The latest updates for AOPA's Airport eDirectory Online are available. You can download the files to your personal computer and transfer them to your personal digital assistant. For download instructions and information about how to install the directory, click here.
| Weekend Weather |
|See the current weather on AOPA Online, provided by Meteorlogix. |
| ePilot Calendar |
| WEEKEND FLYING DESTINATIONS |
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The Aerospace America International Airshow takes place October 3 through 5 at Will Rogers World (OKC). Friday night show, other performances all day Saturday and Sunday. Aerobatic performers, warbirds, modern military aircraft. General aviation aircraft welcome. Contact Lois Lawson or Don Schmidt, 405/685-9546; or visit the Web site.
Prescott, Arizona. Prescott Air Fair 2003 takes place October 4 at Ernest A. Love Field (PRC). Featuring Red Tail P-51, B-17, Super Connie, Trimotor, DC-3, Scott Crossfield, and Tuskegee Airmen. Embry-Riddle Alumni will bring F-18s, Harriers, F-16s, Blackhawk helicopters, hot air balloons, and many more. Contact David Roy, 928/777-4747 or click here to download more information.
St. Petersburg, Florida. The Albert Whitted Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Celebration takes place October 11 at Albert Whitted (SPG). Airport open house and airshow featuring aerobatic demonstrations by Patty Wagstaff, Ian Groom, and Phil Knight. Warbird/civilian flights and displays along with EAA Young Eagles flights. Admission $5. Contact Albert Whitted Airport Preservation Society, 727/822-1532, or visit the Web site.
To submit an event to the calendar, or search all events, visit AOPA Online. For airport details, see AOPA's Airport Directory Online .
ASF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS
(All clinics start at 7:30 a.m.)
The next AOPA Air Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinic is scheduled in Wichita, Kansas, October 11 and 12. Clinics are also scheduled in Columbia, South Carolina, and Nashville, Tennessee, October 18 and 19. For a complete schedule, see AOPA Online. Can't make it in person? Sign up for the CFI Renewal Online.
ASF PINCH-HITTER GROUND-SCHOOL COURSES
(Pinch-Hitter courses start at 9:30 a.m.)
The next Pinch-Hitter® Ground School takes place in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and Windsor Locks, Connecticut, October 26. For more Pinch-Hitter courses, see AOPA Online.
ASF SAFETY SEMINARS
AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Seminars are scheduled in Northbrook, Illinois, October 6; Batavia, Illinois, and Colorado Springs, Colorado, October 7; Rockford, Illinois, and Northglenn, Colorado, October 8; Peoria, Illinois, October 9; Gainesville, Florida, October 13; Tampa, Florida, October 14; Sarasota, Florida, October 15; and Naples, Florida, October 16. The topic is Say Intentions: When you need ATC's help. See AOPA Online for complete details.