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| Training Tips |
What do a porpoise and a wheelbarrow have in common? An airplane can do a convincing imitation of either when problems crop up during ground runs. Touching down in an improper attitude, with too high an airspeed and rate of descent, famously leads to porpoising and accidents involving pilots in training. Learn more about porpoising in the April 16, 2004, " Training Tip."
Less recognized because of its less-spectacular symptoms is the problem of wheelbarrowing. But to anyone who has spent time pushing a real wheelbarrow, the term authentically depicts an airplane speeding along the runway with its nosewheel planted too firmly on the ground and its tail surfaces and main gear constrained from performing their functions.
That's why it's worth taking some time to understand wheelbarrowing, its causes, and its possible results. "Normally, 'wheelbarrowing' may be encountered if the pilot is utilizing excess approach speed in a full flap configuration that results in the aircraft touching down with little or no rotation," explains an FAA advisory circular. "After this touchdown, the pilot may then try to hold the aircraft on the ground with forward pressure on the control wheel. Under these conditions, braking and steering capability is severely diminished and 'wheelbarrowing' is likely to result." This is particularly so in crosswind conditions.
Wheelbarrowing is a takeoff hazard as well. Note that the effect "can occur at lower speeds than during landing due to the propwash increasing the lifting power of the horizontal stabilator. The use of excessive forward stick pressure during takeoff to hold the airplane on the ground to speeds above normal takeoff speed is not recommended," adds the advisory circular.
When landing, a good roundout is always the proper first step. It's also insurance against the wheelbarrow because it sets you up to touch down in the correct nose-up attitude, as Tom Horne explains in "Touchdown" from the September 2003 AOPA Pilot . Another resource for studying the wheelbarrow phenomenon, and how to steer clear of it, is the discussion in Chapter 8 of the Airplane Flying Handbook . Note the proper and simple wheelbarrow-repair techniques given: Smoothly apply back-elevator pressure, or, if it's too late for that, go around!
| Your Partner in Training |
How sharp is your understanding of wake turbulence? What is the proper procedure when you're following a heavy aircraft on approach? Take the AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Quiz on wake turbulence to expand your knowledge from the privacy of your own personal computer. And for guidance on wake turbulence, note Chapter 7, Section 3, of the Aeronautical Information Manual .
Did you know that student pilots who join AOPA are three times more likely to complete their flight training? Membership includes unlimited access to aviation information by phone (800/USA-AOPA, weekdays from 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. Eastern time) or from Flight Training Online or AOPA Online. If you're not already a member, join today and get the pilot's edge. Login information is available online.
| Flight Training News |
FAA EXTENDS FIRST, THIRD CLASS MEDICALS
Good news for pilots under age 40: The FAA has extended the duration of third class medicals from 36 calendar months to 60 calendar months (five years) and first class medicals from six calendar months to 12 calendar months for those in this age group. Current and expired medical certificates are grandfathered under the rule. "This is welcome news for the GA industry," said AOPA President Phil Boyer. "AOPA supported the FAA's move that makes it easier and more affordable for younger pilots to fly." Read more on AOPA Online.
CESSNA, KING SCHOOLS PAIR FOR WEB-BASED PILOT TRAINING
King Schools will partner with Cessna to offer a new Web-based pilot training curriculum that will be available exclusively through the aircraft manufacturer's Cessna Pilot Center network. The new curriculum, for sport pilots and beyond, will feature an electronic logbook and a Web-based course management system, Cessna said July 28. The sport pilot program will be available when the first Cessna SkyCatcher is delivered in the second half of 2009.
EMBRY-RIDDLE TO HOST CAREER EXPOS
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University will host career expos for aviation, aerospace, business, engineering, and other high-tech fields at both campuses in the fall. The Prescott, Ariz., campus will host a career expo on Oct. 2, and the Daytona Beach, Fla., campus will host an event on Nov. 5 and 6. Both are free and open to the public. Participating employers include AIG, American Eagle Airlines, Baker Hughes, the Boeing Co., the Central Intelligence Agency, Cessna Aircraft Co., Hawker Beechcraft Services, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, NetJets, Southwest Airlines, United Space Alliance, Volvo Aero Services, and XCOR Aerospace.
UNIVERSITY OF DUBUQUE GETS CESSNA 172s
Cessna has delivered the first of 10 Cessna 172s to the University of Dubuque's aviation department, the aircraft manufacturer announced July 28. The department is replacing its fleet of Cessna 172s with new models equipped with Garmin G1000 glass cockpits. The university uses Skyhawks in its private and instrument flight courses and in an integrated FAA/Industry Training Standards course. The final deliveries will be made in June 2009.
| Inside AOPA |
AOPA TO DONATE $5,000 TO CIVIL AIR PATROL
AOPA will present a check for $5,000 to the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) National Headquarters next month in recognition of the fact that no pilots violated restricted airspace while traveling to the annual Fly-In and Open House held at AOPA headquarters in Frederick, Md., in June. The donation also recognizes CAP's efforts in getting the word out to pilots throughout the eastern United States that prohibited area P-40 over Camp David, Md., had been expanded. "We challenged pilots coming to the Fly-In to show the FAA and the security folks just how conscientious pilots really are," said AOPA President Phil Boyer. "We said if they delivered on that challenge—no incursion violations—we'd donate $5,000 to the Civil Air Patrol to thank them for their assistance in this effort. This is money I'm glad to give away."
OUTREACH TARGETS NEWLY MINTED PRIVATE, INSTRUMENT PILOTS
Sound aeronautical decision making is a hallmark of safe flying, and the AOPA Air Safety Foundation recently impressed this fact upon more than 8,800 new private and instrument-rated pilots. Supported in part by an FAA grant, the project involved sending free copies of a DVD containing interactive scenarios to all pilots who had earned their private certificate or instrument rating between November 2007 and May 2008. The program now moves to a monthly cycle, ensuring timely recognition of pilot achievement while putting valuable safety resources directly into the hands of those who are beginning new adventures in aviation. For tips on how to make consistently good decisions about flying, see the foundation's Do the Right Thing: Decision Making for Pilots Safety Advisor.
HOW TO GET A BRIEFING WITHOUT HAVING AN AIRCRAFT N NUMBER
Student pilots who use rental aircraft sometimes call flight service without knowing the N number for the airplane they will be flying. While an N number is preferred, you can also inform the briefer that you do not yet know the aircraft ID and that you would like to place your first and last name or other identifying information in the aircraft ID box. This will provide a quick and easy way to verify the briefing later if needed. Do not get a briefing under one N number if you will or could be flying a different aircraft. If you flew an aircraft with a different N number and had an incident or accident, there would be no record of a briefing under that aircraft ID. For more FSS tips, download AOPA's quick reference card and take the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's online minicourse.
AOPA MEMBERS: START YOUR ENGINES
If you're looking for the ultimate car rental experience, look no further than the newest edition to the Hertz Fun Collection: the Corvette ZHZ. The Corvette ZHZ will be available as part of the Fun Collection fleet at select airports throughout the country. Reserve your car through AOPA Online for discounts and to provide revenue to AOPA to help protect and defend general aviation.
| Training Products |
'DAMIAN DELGAIZO'S TAILWHEEL 101'
Thinking about making the transition to a small wheel in the back rather than one in the front? A new DVD is aimed at making the process easier for tricycle-gear pilots. Damian DelGaizo's Tailwheel 101 follows the progress of a student from her initial ground instruction through flight training all the way to the sign-off for the tailwheel endorsement. Footage is provided through cameras on the ground and in the cockpit to illustrate progress and spotlight common trouble spots. DelGaizo is a CFI and owner of Andover Flight Academy in Andover, N.J., which specializes in tailwheel instruction. The 93-minute DVD sells for $49.99. For more information, see the Web site.
Note: Products listed have not been evaluated by ePilot editors unless otherwise noted. AOPA assumes no responsibility for products or services listed or for claims or actions by manufacturers or vendors.
| Final Exam |
Question: What is density altitude, and how does it affect aircraft performance?
Answer: Technically speaking, density altitude is pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature and pressure. Simply put, it's a term used to describe the expected performance of an aircraft at a given temperature and altitude. On a standard day, at sea level, the outside air temperature is 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit) and the atmospheric pressure is 29.92 Hg. However, as temperature increases the air density thins and, as a result, aircraft performance deteriorates. The higher the altitude and temperature combination, the thinner the air and the worse the aircraft will perform. A density altitude of 3,000 feet at sea level means an aircraft will perform as if it actually was 3,000 feet above sea level. A high density altitude translates to less power output, decreased lift, and decreased propeller efficiency, resulting in needing significantly more runway to achieve liftoff and obstacle clearance. Read more in AOPA's subject report. If you're flying in the mountains where the effects of density altitude are pronounced, take the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's Mountain Flying online course.
Got a question for our technical services staff? E-mail to [email protected] or call the Pilot Information Center, 800/872-2672. Don't forget the online archive of "Final Exam" questions and answers, searchable by keyword or topic.
| What's New Online |
AirVenture is the biggest annual aviation gathering in the nation—perhaps the world—and it's happening this week in Oshkosh, Wis. (which is why you'll hear your pilot colleagues refer to it as "Oshkosh"). AOPA's editors are taking photos and shooting video, covering the exciting industry developments, and blogging about it all. If you can't make it to the show, check out our extensive Oshkosh coverage on AOPA Online.
| Picture Perfect |
Looking for some really fabulous aviation photography? All the air-to-air photos and beautifully detailed ground images used by AOPA Pilot magazine over the years are yours at the click of a mouse button. Download your favorite images to use for wallpaper or send an e-postcard. For more details, see AOPA Online.
| Aviation Events & Weather |
Want something to do this weekend? Wanting to plan an aviation getaway? See our online calendar of events. We’ve enhanced our calendar so that with one click, you can see all of the events listed in the calendar regions you selected when personalizing ePilot. Now you can browse events listed two weeks to a few months out to make your planning easier. Before you take off on an adventure, make sure you check our current aviation weather provided by Jeppesen.
To submit an event or to search all events in the calendar visit AOPA Online. For airport details, including FBO fuel prices see AOPA's Airport Directory Online.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS
The next AOPA Air Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics are scheduled in Champaign, Ill., and Fort Worth, Texas, Aug. 2 and 3; Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 9 and 10; Long Beach, Calif., Reno, Nev., and Allentown, Pa., Aug. 16 and 17. For a complete schedule, see AOPA Online. Can't make it in person? Sign up for the CFI Refresher Online.
AOPA AIR SAFETY FOUNDATION SAFETY SEMINARS
AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Seminars are scheduled in Wichita, Kan.; Ypsilanti, Mich.; and Germantown, Tenn., on Sept. 8. Topics vary—for details and a complete schedule, see AOPA Online.