This ePilot Flight Training Edition is sponsored by
Do not reply to this e-mail. Got news? Contact ePilot. Having difficulty using this service? Visit the ePilot Frequently Asked Questions now at AOPA Online or write to [email protected].
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
421 Aviation Way
Frederick, MD 21701
Tel: 800/USA-AOPA or
Copyright © 2008 AOPA.
| Training Tips |
LIFT, DRAG, AND FLAPS
Flaps increase a wing's lift and drag. The increased lift allows flight at lower airspeeds, and the increased drag permits steeper approaches. But that's not the whole story. Lift and drag team up differently at different flap settings. Understanding how they vary is necessary to know what kind of performance to expect from your aircraft. The changing influence of lift and drag as flap deployment changes also explains why the immediate partial retraction of flaps is required during go-arounds after a full-flap approach in many aircraft.
"Flaps represent a way to increase the approach angle because the lift generated by flaps is accompanied by an increase in drag. Although it varies with the exact type of flap (Fowler, slotted, unslotted, simple hinged), it is generally assumed that as flaps are extended past 15 degrees, they begin generating more drag than lift," wrote Budd Davisson in the February 2008 AOPA Flight Training feature "Controlling your approach path: Drop flaps or slip the ship."
The acceleration-inhibiting drag prevalent in intermediate to full flap deployments is the reason that go-arounds may require immediate flap reductions. "In a balked landing (go-around) climb, the wing flap setting should be reduced to 20 degrees immediately after full power is applied. Upon reaching a safe airspeed, the flaps should be slowly retracted to the full up position," says the pilot's operating handbook (POH) for a 1980 Cessna 152, a trainer with flap settings of 10, 20, and 30 degrees. (Note that it is the lift provided by the first flap setting that enables the Cessna 152 to make better short-field and soft-field takeoffs with one "notch" of flaps extended.)
In flight, understanding the performance and control implications of flap settings helps a pilot to choose among the options available when facing a given set of runway and wind conditions, as discussed by Alton K. Marsh in the August 2004 AOPA Pilot feature "The flap about flaps." Always observe the airspeed limitations on the use of flaps as depicted on the white arc of your aircraft's airspeed indicator and as noted in the POH. Also note any cautions in the POH about combining slips [see the Feb. 24, 2006, Training Tips] with flaps.
The right amount of flap extension, at the right time, will give you the best performance.
| Your Partner in Training |
What's one of the first things you should do after enrolling in AOPA's free six-month membership? Besides reading AOPA Flight Training magazine from cover to cover, register at AOPA Online. You won't find a better collection of aviation resources right at your fingertips—anywhere! Here are some great links to get you started on this comprehensive Web site. The Flight Training section of AOPA's online Pilot Information Center offers an extensive assortment of reference materials, including the FAA practical test standards and the federal aviation regulations, among many others. AOPA Flight Training magazine has an online compilation of resources particularly useful for student pilots.
As an AOPA Flight Training Member, you have access to all of the features within AOPA Online and AOPA Flight Training Online. Login information is available online.
| Flight Training News |
CESSNA, CIRRUS TOP LIGHT SPORT EXPO NEWS
Cessna Aircraft Co. and Cirrus Design provided updates on their light sport aircraft, while new models were announced by a half-dozen manufacturers at the U.S. Sport Aviation Expo, which took place last week in Sebring, Fla. Most of the new models range in cost from $110,000 to $130,000 when equipped with the most oft-requested customer options. Cessna said its SkyCatcher 162 light sport aircraft will be reassembled at three locations in the United States after initial work in Shenyang, China. Meanwhile, Cirrus is taking $5,000 deposits on its Cirrus SRS on its Web site. The Cirrus SRS, to be based on the FK Lightplans FK 14 low-wing aircraft, will cost between $110,000 and $120,000. And new aircraft seen for the first time included the Flight Design CTLS, the Tecnam P92 Eaglet, the Jabiru J230 SP, and the Gobosh G-800. Many are aimed at capturing the training market, also a goal for Cessna and Cirrus. See the complete story on AOPA Online.
'AOPA FLIGHT TRAINING' COLUMNIST TO SPEAK AT ARIZONA EXPO
AOPA Flight Training Contributing Editor Greg Brown will be the keynote speaker at the Arizona Flight Training Expo on Feb. 4. The event will begin at 10 a.m. at the Mesa Public Works Training Facility in Mesa, Ariz. Presentations will focus on the benefits of becoming a flight instructor, medical information for CFIs, sport pilot and light sport aircraft, and flight training activity in the Phoenix area. For more information or to register, see the Web site.
EMBRY-RIDDLE TO HOST TRAINING SYMPOSIUM
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University will convene the 2008 National Training Aircraft Symposium March 17 to 20 at its Daytona Beach, Fla., campus. The event will spotlight best practices in managing collegiate flight training programs. One day will be devoted to the issue of the pilot supply in an expanding and increasingly diverse aviation system in the United States and abroad. For more information on the event or to register, see the Web site or contact Sarah Edel by phone (386/226-6836) or e-mail.
JOHNS HOPKINS PRESIDENT TEACHES FLIGHT COURSE
The president of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Md., recently stepped out of the administrative office to teach a course on flying, according to an article in The JHU Gazette. William R. Brody, a CFI and ATP, taught an intersession program, which gives students an opportunity to take an intensive one- or two-credit course from Jan. 7 to Jan. 25. The course included lectures on aerodynamics, weather, instrumentation, communication, and the federal aviation regulations. Students had an opportunity to use a PC-based flight simulator and take one hour of flight instruction at Martin State Airport.
| Inside AOPA |
NEW SAFETY SEMINAR ATTRACTING RECORD NUMBERS OF PILOTS
Tell pilots the top five ways they might crash an airplane, and it seems you get their attention. With early returns in, the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's new live seminar, "Top 5 Mistakes Pilots Make," is on track to be one of its most popular ever. The free educational program debuted in Reno, Nev., earlier this month to a crowd of 350 safety-conscious pilots—nearly twice the average attendance at a foundation seminar. The following week, a near-record 420 attendees filled the room in Mesa, Ariz., to learn how not to become a GA accident statistic. Don't miss this popular and potentially life-saving seminar when it comes to your town.
A MONUMENTAL TASK
Asking an airplane repair and refurbishment shop to create a new interior, repaint, and do maintenance on one of our sweepstakes airplanes is like taking a knowledge and practical private pilot test on the same day in 100-degree heat. It's a pressure cooker! But one shop, Oxford Aviation in Oxford, Maine, was up to the challenge. Visit AOPA Online to learn about picking a refurb shop and what it means to completely redo an airplane.
HAVE YOU UPDATED YOUR AOPA MEMBER PROFILE?
To make the most of your membership and allow us to serve you better, please visit AOPA Online and update your personal member profile.
| Training Products |
PEN PAL CLIP KEEPS WRITING TOOLS AT HAND
When you need a pen or pencil, scrambling to locate one in a flight bag (or retrieve the one that fell on the floor during the takeoff) can distract you from flying the airplane. The Pen Pal is a clip with a circular loop that keeps extra writing tools handy by attaching them to your kneeboard, pocket, or flight bag. Constructed to hold one ($3.75), two ($4.75), or three pens ($5.75), the Pen Pal is available at Ace's Pilot Shop.
Note: Products listed have not been evaluated by ePilot editors unless otherwise noted. AOPA assumes no responsibility for products or services listed or for claims or actions by manufacturers or vendors.
| Final Exam |
Question: I'm having a difficult time anticipating turbulence while flying. Do you have any suggestions?
Answer: Turbulence is often caused by wind—particularly when you cross the path of winds blowing from two directions (wind shear). Environment also plays a part in turbulent air movement. Mountains, high buildings, and rough terrain can interrupt an otherwise smooth airflow and cause the bumps you feel as you fly over. Weather front movement also produces turbulence, and this should be studied a day or so before your flight to assist you in making a go/no-go decision. More information on turbulence is discussed in the AOPA Flight Training article, "The Weather Never Sleeps: Turbulence 101."
Got a question for our technical services staff? E-mail to [email protected] or call the Pilot Information Center, 800/872-2672. Don't forget the online archive of "Final Exam" questions and answers, searchable by keyword or topic.
| Picture Perfect |
|Looking for some really fabulous aviation photography? All the air-to-air photos and beautifully detailed ground images used by AOPA Pilot magazine over the years are yours at the click of a mouse button. Download your favorite images to use for wallpaper, send an e-postcard, or order prints online. For more details, see AOPA Online. |
| What's New at AOPA Online |
Fifty-one “legends” in the history of the North American P-51 Mustang came to Columbus, Ohio, in September to be honored at The Gathering of Mustangs and Legends. Meet some of these heroes, and read their stories, in the February 2008 issue of AOPA Pilot.
| Weekend Weather |
|See the current weather on AOPA Online, provided by Jeppesen. |
| ePilot Calendar |
UPCOMING FLYING DESTINATIONS:
There are no national events this week.
To submit an event to the calendar or to search all events visit AOPA Online. For airport details, including FBO fuel prices, see AOPA's Airport Directory Online.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS
The next AOPA Air Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics are scheduled in Melbourne, Fla., Louisville, Ky., Las Vegas, Oklahoma City, and Reston, Va., Feb. 9 and 10. For a complete schedule, see AOPA Online. Can't make it in person? Sign up for the CFI Refresher Online.
AOPA AIR SAFETY FOUNDATION SAFETY SEMINARS
AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Seminars are scheduled in San Diego, Jan. 28; Costa Mesa, Calif., Jan. 29; North Hills, Calif., Jan. 30; and Ontario, Calif., Jan. 31. The topic is "Top 5 Mistakes Pilots Make." For details and a complete schedule, see AOPA Online.