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| Training Tips |
THE 'OVERBANKING TENDENCY'
The May 9, 2008, "Training Tip" explained how "learning to lead" a turn, climb, or descent is an important part of performing those maneuvers precisely. Knowing how to lead a rollout or level off skillfully lets the pilot fly maneuvers with pinpoint accuracy, especially when the rate of turn or vertical motion is high.
A turn with a high rate of heading change employs a steep bank angle. That steep turn requires a large lead, and it has another characteristic distinguishing it from other turns: a tendency for the bank angle to increase unless the pilot positively prevents it with control pressure.
Turns are considered shallow until the bank angle reaches about 20 degrees. The pilot may have to use control inputs to maintain a shallow turn because the aircraft's built-in stability causes it to attempt to return to wings-level flight. This aerodynamic response changes in a medium banked turn (20 to about 45 degrees) in which the aircraft may remain at a constant bank angle, as explained in Chapter 3 of the FAA's Airplane Flying Handbook. About a steep turn, the Handbook says: "Steep turns are those resulting from a degree of bank (45 degrees or more) at which the 'overbanking tendency' of an airplane overcomes stability, and the bank increases unless aileron is applied to prevent it."
The reduced radius of steep turns compared to medium and shallow turns amplifies the difference in the amount of lift being developed by the inside and outside wings, creating the tendency to overbank that must be offset with aileron pressure. The added lift also creates more drag on the outside wing, creating a tendency to yaw. This must be corrected with rudder pressure. The pilot must also hold back-pressure in the turn but reduce it as the rollout continues and the horizontal component of lift reduces to zero, as discussed by Chris Parker in the March 2008 AOPA Flight Training feature "Steepen that turn."
Correct technique for flying a steep turn was the subject of the March 29, 2002, "Training Tip." Like knowing how to lead a rollout, applying your knowledge of the overbanking tendency is part of the headwork that brings a turning maneuver to a successful conclusion.
| Your Partner in Training |
If a private pilot checkride is in your future, it's not too soon to start thinking about what you'll do with your brand-new certificate. Do you plan to dive into training for a new rating? Will you focus on planning some trips or $100 hamburger jaunts? Does checking out in new and different rental aircraft appeal to you? Let AOPA Online and AOPA Flight Training Online be your guides as you explore the options. And if you still have questions, call the Pilot Information Center weekdays between 8:30 a.m. and 6 p.m. Eastern at 800/USA-AOPA.
As an AOPA Flight Training Member, you have access to all of the features within AOPA Online and AOPA Flight Training Online. Login information is available online.
| Flight Training News |
COLLEGIATE FLIGHT TEAMS GO FOR THE GOLD
Thirty-one college and university flight teams competed in May for the gold in the 2008 National Intercollegiate Flying Association Safety and Flight Evaluation Conference (NIFA Safecon) at Murphreesboro, Tenn. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Prescott's team took home the national championship trophy and first place overall for both ground and flight events. Jason M. Schappert, representing Jacksonville University, won the certificated flight instructor event, which was sponsored by AOPA. The national top pilot award went to Michael G. McConnell of Ohio State University. McConnell also was the top-scoring male contestant. Emily A. Brown of LeTourneau University was the top-scoring female contestant. A complete list of schools and rankings will be made available on the NIFA Web site. Middle Tennessee State University hosted the event.
AOPA EXPLAINS FUEL-SAVING TECHNIQUES EVERY PILOT CAN PRACTICE
The rising cost of avgas is top of mind for many pilots. And for student pilots, anything that saves a few dollars on each training flight can add up to large savings at the end. You can minimize the hit to your wallet by practicing a few simple fuel-management techniques that are often overlooked. Read about proper leaning, a lower economy cruise setting, and a cruise descent profile on AOPA Online. Then talk to your instructor about ways to implement these techniques into your training flights.
GULF COAST FLIGHT SCHOOL TO HOST LSA OPEN HOUSE
CAMS Flight Inc., a flight school located at St. Petersburg/Clearwater International Airport in St. Petersburg, Fla., will host a light sport open house and information session on May 31. The flight school recently acquired an AMD Zodiac for light sport instruction. "We have seen that few people seem to know about it, so we're holding an open house/information session to explain and explore these areas for those interested," said Doug Norman, advanced ground instructor. The information session counts as an hour of loggable ground time. In addition, CAMS Flight is offering a reduced rental rate for the Zodiac of $99 per hour until July 1. For more information, see the Web site.
FSS TIP OF THE WEEK: SPELL IT OUT FROM ALPHA TO ZULU
Use the phonetic alphabet to get a more efficient, accurate flight service briefing. According to a pilot and flight service specialist with Lockheed Martin, many pilots fail to use the phonetic alphabet when they contact FSS. All briefers know the phonetic alphabet, so it should be the default when spelling words. For example, when giving an airport's identification, state "Departing Foxtrot Delta Kilo; Frederick, Maryland" instead of "Departing FDK." This simple tweak could help ensure that your flight plan doesn't get misplaced in the system. For more FSS tips, download AOPA's quick reference card, and take the AOPA Air Safety Foundation's online minicourse, A Pilot's Guide to Flight Service .
FLIGHT SCHOOL OPENS IN ASPEN
Two years after the flight school at Aspen-Pitkin County/Sardy Field closed when the fixed-base operation was sold, two area pilots have brought flight training back to the airport. Bryan Sax and Gary Kraft opened Aspen Aero in April, according to a report in the Aspen Times. Sax and Craft use a 1972 Cessna Skyhawk for training and will offer mountain flying instruction and scenic flights in addition to primary flight training.
| Inside AOPA |
BOYER, AOPA EXECS TO GIVE STATUS CHECK OF GA INDUSTRY AT FLY-IN
Want to know the latest on the FAA funding debate or what AOPA is doing to reduce the cost of flying and boost the pilot population? AOPA's Fly-In and Open House on Saturday, June 7, in Frederick, Md., will be your chance to ask AOPA President Phil Boyer and the association's executive team the tough questions regarding general aviation. Also attend various seminars, like aviation humorist Rod Machado's "Handling In-Flight Emergencies"; take in the dozens of GA aircraft that will be on display, including AOPA's 2008 Get Your Glass Piper Archer Sweepstakes airplane; and browse through more than 100 aviation exhibits. Make sure you bring a prospective pilot—this show could be the hook to get them in the left seat. Discover Flying seminars throughout the day will discuss the process of learning to fly.
KEEPING CLEAR OF WAKE TURBULENCE
No pilot would willingly fly through a tornado. Still, occasionally pilots inadvertently fly through wake turbulence vortices, which can reach velocities in excess of 200 mph (300 feet per second). These roiling forces can far exceed the structural strength or control authority of a light general aviation aircraft that wanders across their path. How much do you know about wake turbulence generation and avoidance? Find out by taking the latest Safety Quiz from the AOPA Air Safety Foundation. Then challenge yourself further with previous Safety Quizzes.
THE NEW GLASS ARCHER
Finally, after months of work on paint and interior, AOPA's 2008 Get Your Glass Sweepstakes Piper Archer is undergoing work on the instrument panel. We're taking a panel full of older radios and instruments and radically transforming it to include the best new equipment on the market. Check out this week's sweepstakes update to learn what goes on behind the panel and what it takes to make the newest glass airplane in the sky.
HAS THIS HAPPENED TO YOU?
You apply for life insurance from a company luring you with the promise of low premium rates for pilots. Later, you find out that the teaser rates are only available if you exclude the type of flying you do. AOPA knows how important it is to find a reputable insurance company that understands aviation and how it affects the life insurance purchase. The AOPA term life insurance programs underwritten by Minnesota Life have been insuring pilots and paying claims for more than 50 years. The group and individual programs are designed to insure virtually all types of flying. Start your search with a quote from the AOPA term life insurance programs. An experienced representative will provide you with a competitive quote to cover the type of flying you do. Call 888/879-2672 or visit the Web site.
STRETCH YOUR DOLLAR WITH AOPA WORLDPOINTS CREDIT CARD
Keeping flying affordable has been part of AOPA's mission since 1939, but it has probably never been more important than today. With fuel prices rising and the economy slowing, pilots are feeling the pressure at the pump—and just about everywhere else. But AOPA has tools that can help. Stretch every dollar by collecting reward points for the money you spend when you make purchases with the AOPA WorldPoints credit card from Bank of America. Purchases like gas, groceries, or household utilities earn one point for each dollar spent. Aviation purchases made with the card earn double reward points—two points for each dollar spent. Read more on AOPA Online.
HAVE YOU UPDATED YOUR AOPA MEMBER PROFILE?
To make the most of your membership and allow us to serve you better, please visit AOPA Online and update your personal member profile.
| Training Products |
ASA'S VIRTUAL TEST PREP FOR HELICOPTERS
Just as a fixed-wing student pilot needs a clear understanding of aerodynamics, so does a rotary-wing student. The Virtual Test Prep DVD series from Aviation Supplies & Academics has released an installment on helicopter fundamentals. The DVD covers basic aerodynamics, helicopter systems and flight controls, and aerodynamics unique to helicopters, among other topics. Training tools include in-flight demonstrations and 3-D animated graphics. The DVD is meant to supplement the airplane Virtual Test Prep ground school courses, meaning you'll need to complete both the helicopter and airplane ground school courses to prepare for your pertinent FAA knowledge test. The DVD has a run time of 91 minutes and sells for $29.95. Order online or call 800/ASA-2FLY.
Note: Products listed have not been evaluated by ePilot editors unless otherwise noted. AOPA assumes no responsibility for products or services listed or for claims or actions by manufacturers or vendors.
| Final Exam |
Question: Is simulator time considered flight time, and may I log it as such?
Answer: Simulator training is not considered flight time, but it is aeronautical experience that may be used in limited quantities toward a pilot certificate and/or rating. "Flight time" means pilot time that commences when an aircraft moves under its own power for the purpose of flight and ends when the aircraft comes to rest after landing, as defined by Part 1 of the federal aviation regulations. Pilots may log simulator time as outlined in FAR 61.51(b)(2)(3) as long as an authorized instructor is present during the training. Read AOPA's subject report on flight training devices for more information.
Got a question for our technical services staff? E-mail to [email protected] or call the Pilot Information Center, 800/872-2672. Don't forget the online archive of "Final Exam" questions and answers, searchable by keyword or topic.
| Picture Perfect |
Looking for some really fabulous aviation photography? All the air-to-air photos and beautifully detailed ground images used by AOPA Pilot magazine over the years are yours at the click of a mouse button. Download your favorite images to use for wallpaper or send an e-postcard. For more details, see AOPA Online.
| Weekend Weather |
| ePilot Calendar |
UPCOMING FLYING DESTINATIONS:
Columbia, S.C. Thunder at Fort Jackson takes place May 17 at Fort Jackson. For more information, contact Anna Amick, 803/772-2945, or visit the Web site.
Rome, Ga. An American Heroes Aviation and Public Safety Expo takes place May 17 and 18 at Richard B. Russell (RMG). For more information, contact Mike Grier, 404/451-2212, or visit the Web site.
Janesville, Wis. AirFest '08 takes place May 24 and 25 at Southern Wisconsin Regional (JVL). For more information, contact Julia Dacy, 608/754-5405, or visit the Web site.
Columbia, Mo. A Salute to Veterans Airshow takes place May 24 and 25 at Columbia Regional (COU). For more information, contact Mary Posner, 573/449-6520, or visit the Web site.
Ranger, Texas. An annual Memorial Day weekend airshow and fly-in takes place May 24 at Ranger Municipal (F23). For more information, contact Jared Calvert, 254/433-1267.
To submit an event to the calendar or to search all events visit AOPA Online. For airport details, including FBO fuel prices, see AOPA's Airport Directory Online.
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS
The next AOPA Air Safety Foundation Flight Instructor Refresher Clinics are scheduled in Orlando, Fla., Charlotte, N.C., and Reston, Va., June 7 and 8. Clinics are also scheduled in Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Columbus, Ohio, June 21 and 22. For a complete schedule, see AOPA Online. Can't make it in person? Sign up for the CFI Refresher Online.
AOPA AIR SAFETY FOUNDATION SAFETY SEMINARS
AOPA Air Safety Foundation Safety Seminars are scheduled in Danville, Va., May 27; and Richmond, Va., May 28. The topic is "Top 5 Mistakes Pilots Make." Seminars are also scheduled at the AOPA Fly-In and Open House, June 7, in Frederick, Md. Topics vary—for details and a complete schedule, see AOPA Online.